We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Other Articles |


Dan M. Gordon, M.D.
JAMA. 1951;146(9):810-813. doi:10.1001/jama.1951.03670090042012.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Since the retinal arterioles tend to mirror and parallel the arteriolar changes in other vital organs, routine ophthalmoscopy is essential in those pregnancies in which elevation of blood pressure or alterations in the renal and other studies indicate a possible deviation from the normal course of pregnancy.

A massive, and at times confusing, literature has arisen concerning the ocular findings in the toxemias of pregnancy; confusing because some authors have failed to differentiate between those changes in the ocular fundi that eventually occur in all patients with persistent hypertension and the ophthalmoscopic findings that occur purely by virtue of the existence of a toxic process in the course of pregnancy, with or without evidence of preceding cardiovascular-renal damage.

From an ophthalmoscopic point of view the patients with toxemia may be divided into two main groups: those with no evidence of prior vascular damage and those with such evidence. More simply


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.