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Virgil S. Counseller, M.D.
JAMA. 1951;146(1):27-30. doi:10.1001/jama.1951.03670010031009.
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Urinary stress incontinence in women is the same in any country and is almost always caused by bearing children. It occurs also in older women who have not borne children, but then it is usually due to a loss of muscle tone incident to the menopause and atrophy of tissue supports of the vesical neck and urethra.

It has been a universal gynecologic experience that about 75 per cent of patients suffering from a mild degree of stress incontinence will be completely cured or greatly relieved by a plastic repair of the vesical neck and urethra, alone or in combination with repair of cystocele, urethrocele and the pelvic floor. About 25 per cent have recurrence of their trouble and do require more study and more extensive surgical repair. All these operations are intended to elevate the vesical neck and urethra and to elongate the urethra somewhat.

It has been shown


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