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Max Ritvo, M.D.; Giulio J. D'Angio, M.D.; Ivan E. Rhodes, M.D.
JAMA. 1956;160(1):4-10. doi:10.1001/jama.1956.02960360006002.
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• Injuries to physicians continue to occur because of the increasing use of x-rays and gamma radiation in modern diagnosis. The danger to nonradiologists is especially great until they learn to practice safety habits and to use available protective equipment. The survey here reported revealed poor safety habits in most nonradiological personnel and resulted in striking improvement.

In the past, fluoroscopic reduction of fractures was the commonest cause of injury. Highly malignant forms of carcinoma developed in the skin, but damage to the hematopoietic and reproductive organs has also been serious. New procedures such as cystourethrography, angiography, myelography, and hip-nailing are here analyzed as to the amount of exposure involved, and the methods needed for protection are described.


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