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JAMA. 1948;137(13):1116-1121. doi:10.1001/jama.1948.02890470016004.
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Bone grafts have been utilized successfully for approximately forty years. However, it was not until World War I that bone graft surgery actually reached the plane of efficiency to be of great utilization in the repair of bone disease and bone defects secondary to trauma. At the termination of World War I, America found itself with a large number of persons who required repair of the long bones of the extremities in order to rehabilitate these people back to civilian life. The same was true in the European countries. From this experience many of the basic principles of bone graft surgery were developed to such an extent that little has been added mechanically to the technic of bone graft surgery until the beginning of World War II.

In the interval of approximately twenty years numerous men have perfected certain types of gadgets or pieces of equipment which materially helped in


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