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JAMA. 1948;136(15):969-972. doi:10.1001/jama.1948.02890320013003.
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Paralysis of the facial nerve, so calamitous a disfigurement in a person's life, is also an incidence of economic, social and psychologic importance, since one loses "the language of facial expression," as Duel so aptly put it. Since the face is "the mirror of the soul," many surgeons have attempted to come to the rescue by surgical procedures. To the late Sir Charles Ballance, of London, must be accredited the first recorded case of successfully operating for the relief of facial paralysis. In 1895, he anastomosed the spinal accessory nerve with the facial. ( Drobnick, in 1879, performed the same operation but did not record the case, although some of his confreres wrote about it.) Brilliant as were the results of the operations, the so-called emotional response was lacking; there was atrophy of the muscles supplied by the nerve together with disfiguring associated movements.

INTRATEMPORAL FACIAL OPERATIONS  Intratemporal facial operations were


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