There is considerable interest in the possibility that elevated blood cholesterol levels might be an inciting agent in the production of atherosclerosis in man. It is widely assumed that the cholesterol level of the blood is a reflection of the cholesterol content of the diet. In the case of the rabbit, a herbivor, it is possible to produce both elevated cholesterol levels of the blood and atherosclerosis by feeding large amounts of cholesterol.
Keys and co-workers1 have investigated the effect of the cholesterol content of the diet and the blood cholesterol levels in a large number of healthy males over a period of three years. These subjects were in a favorable economic status, so that the dietary patterns were not influenced by economic demands. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the average cholesterol content of their diets. The latter was determined by means of interviews and