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Helen M. Wallace, M.D.; Edwin M. Gold, M.D.; Leona Baumgartner, M.D.; Margaret A. Losty, R.N.; Herbert Rich
JAMA. 1954;155(8):716-719. doi:10.1001/jama.1954.03690260008003.
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The New York City program for maternity patients and newborn infants, which operated for a period of over eight years (1944-1951), had the following components, all designed to strengthen the care given to the pregnant woman and her newborn infant: (1) a consultation program designed to improve the quality of antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum hospital care of the mother and baby1; (2) a program designed to improve the level of care of the prematurely born infants2; (3) the operation of four antepartum clinics by the New York City Health Department in the low socioeconomic areas of the city and where there was a shortage of hospital facilities; and (4) the supervision of the activities of the midwives remaining in the city and their patients.3


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