Enuresis is a major problem, involving about 16% of the population between the ages 3 to 15 years. A solution is necessary for the social adjustment of the child, and those few persons in whom enuresis persists into adult life are truly handicapped. Anatomic or physiological abnormalities are present in only about 3% of those affected,1 and since these can be treated by specific measures they do not enter into the present discussion. In any child, if bladder control is not accomplished by the time he has reached the age of 3 ½ years, training is likely to be difficult.
The causes proposed for nocturnal enuresis are varied and range from laziness to psychic disturbances. Holt and Holland state that bedwetting is purely a habit often associated with other habits that go with an unstable personality. Grulee and Eley say that a strong familial tendency is commonly observed in