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H. A. O'Brien, M.D.; Joseph D. Mitchell Jr., M.D.
JAMA. 1953;153(13):1149-1152. doi:10.1001/jama.1953.02940300007002.
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"Bladder trouble" is extremely common in females of any age. In most of our patients with this complaint, we found the cause to be a simple infection in the urethra and trigone. To accurately determine the frequency of this lesion in our practice, we analyzed the records of 200 consecutive female patients seen for the first time in the office. It showed that in 74.5% the symptoms resulted from primary disease in the urethra and trigone. The remaining 24.5% had a variety of urinary tract disorders as seen in a general urologic practice. These were diagnosed as urethritis and trigonitis, 149 patients (74.5%); kidney and ureter stones, 23 (11.5% ); acute and chronic pyelonephritis, 9 (4.5% ); solitary renal cyst, 3 (1.5%); cystocele, urethrocele, or procidentia, 2 (1% ); ureteral stricture and tumor, 2 (1%); exstrophy of bladder, 1 (0.5%); carcinoma of bladder, 4 (2%); ureterocele with hydronephrosis, 1 (0.5%); nephroptosis, 1 (0.5%);


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