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A ROENTGEN STUDY OF THE PHYSIOLOGIC AND PATHOLOGIC CHANGES IN THE MAMMARY GLAND

IRA H. LOCKWOOD, M.D.; WENDELL STEWART, M.D.
JAMA. 1932;99(18):1461-1466. doi:10.1001/jama.1932.02740700001001.
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The roentgenologic examination of the mammary gland offers a valuable addition to the present diagnostic methods for the preoperative recognition of cancer as well as of other pathologic states in the breast. Following the first report of Warren,1 evidence has accumulated2 showing the value of roentgenograms in establishing the presence or absence of a mass, defining its mammary and axillary extensions and usually its character. Nonmalignant conditions are shown, and the examination may be of great prognostic import.3

The mammary gland lends itself readily to roentgen examination. Projection of the gland may be made with a minimum of distortion and with very little super-imposition of other structures. For the examination the patient is placed obliquely on the roentgenographic table. The subject lies on the arm corresponding to the breast being examined, while holding the other breast out of the way with the free hand. The clothing over

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