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Leon Goldman, M.D.; Donald P. Cole, M.D.; Robert H. Preston, M.D.
JAMA. 1953;152(15):1428-1429. doi:10.1001/jama.1953.63690150002009a.
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Since the initial success of the treatment of lupus erythematosus with quinacrine (Atabrine) by Prokoptchouk1a and Popoff and Kutinscheff1b and later by Page,2 in Europe, attempts have been made to find other less toxic antimalarial agents. Numerous investigators3 in this country also have had good results with the use of quinacrine in this disorder, but they have warned about its toxic effects, which may include production of fatal aplastic anemia.3b

After conferences with Dr. Leon Schmidt,4 director of malarial research at the Institute of Medical Research, Christ Hospital, chloroquine was selected as investigative material, because it is distinctly less toxic, it may be found in the skin in appreciable amounts after oral ingestion, and it does not discolor the skin as does quinacrine. A review of the literature and our own experience revealed that the toxic effects of chloroquine diphosphate are insignificant. Toxic symptoms


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