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NONMEDICAL FACTORS AFFECTING HEALTH

JAMA. 1938;111(18):1660. doi:10.1001/jama.1938.02790440054013.
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Many factors other than the actual rendering of medical and allied services may affect the maintenance of good health and recovery from disease. Urban or rural residence is important in mortality and morbidity expectation. White infants born in the country today may expect to live about five years longer than white infants born in the city if they are boys and four years longer if they are girls.1 Typhoid, however, takes relatively more than twice as many lives in rural areas as in cities. Rural residents continue to possess definite advantages over urban residents in health prospects.

Housing is a fundamental consideration in the general health problem. Poor housing is often associated with poverty, ignorance, inadequate food, long hours of toil, hazardous employment, unfavorable climate, unhygienic living and still other factors which have a more direct bearing on health.2 While a house itself ordinarily does not have a

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