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John F. Quinlan, M.D.
JAMA. 1938;111(13):1230. doi:10.1001/jama.1938.02790390086027.
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To the Editor:—  Neither Dr. Ernst Gellhorn's original article nor Dr. Friedman's communication add much light to the seeming puzzle of the action of insulin on the nervous system in schizophrenia. Their confusion arises from the indiscriminate massing of chemical and physical evidence with what Dr. Kettering would call too much meaningless scientific verbiage.The faculties of the mind are discernible only through biochemical reactions expressed or observed in terms of physical activity or inaction. Consequently the psyche—from the standpoint of natural science—is eluctable only through an understanding of its dependent physical phenomena—electrical, chemical, physical—which are subject to equivalent translation, since they are merely aspects of a unitary process. Brain wave recordings, lie detections, chronaxias, electrocardiograms are the electrical "shadows," as heat and size (growth, decay, atrophy) are the physical reflection of matter—organic and inorganic chemicals—ionized and in motion in solution.Physiologic activity is accompanied by the production of organic


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The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
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