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George V. Taplin, M.D.; George R. Meneely, M.D.; Robert A. Hettig, M.D.
JAMA. 1938;111(5):410-411. doi:10.1001/jama.1938.72790310001010.
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In the routine use of the quellung (swelling) reaction for the rapid typing of pneumococci in sputum, certain difficulties are encountered frequently which delay the process of typing and impair its accuracy. These may be enumerated as follows: 1. In some specimens of sputum pneumococci are rare so that considerable time is consumed in making sure that no quellung occurs. 2. The presence of cells and detritus frequently makes it difficult to recognize pneumococci and delays the process of quellung for from ten to thirty minutes. 3. The individual portions of sputum used with each type-specific serum vary greatly among themselves with regard to factors 1 and 2. In view of the large number of types to be determined and the fact that more than one type of pneumococcus may be present in a given specimen, considerable time may be required before a complete report can be rendered. For this


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The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
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