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Untersuchungen über die Augenhöhlen des Menschen in verschiedenen Lebensaltern

JAMA. 1938;110(26):2176. doi:10.1001/jama.1938.02790260050029.
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ABSTRACT

In this dissertation from the University of Uppsala, produced under the direction of Professor Berg, ophthalmologist, and Professor Agduhr, histologist, Pallin investigates the evolution of the orbit from fetal to adult life. Ample material at various ages has been systematically analyzed according to accepted modern biometric procedure, and the data provided should facilitate a better visualization of the mechanism of orbital development. At the beginning of the second month of embryonic life the eyes look laterally, reminiscent of our phylogenic ancestry, and the optic stalks are in line with each other. The angle is reduced to 105 degrees in the next month, reaches 71 degrees at birth, and converges from 3 to 5 degrees further by maturity. In late childhood the expansion of the facial skeleton increases the orbital and interorbital width much more than the distance between the optic foramens, occasioning consequently a forward divergence of the orbital axes

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