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THE PREOPERATIVE VISUALIZATION OF BREAST TUMORS

N. FREDERICK HICKEN, M.D.; R. RUSSELL BEST, M.D.; CHARLES F. MOON, M.D.; T. TENNYSON HARRIS, M.D.
JAMA. 1937;108(11):864-867. doi:10.1001/jama.1937.02780110012004.
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Tumors of the breast can be visualized in situ by contrast roentgenographic studies. The offending neoplasms are rendered visible by outlining them with such contrast mediums as stabilized thorium dioxide sol, lipoiodine and air. This can be accomplished in one of two ways. The first method consists of injecting the milk ducts with the radiopaque substance and then making stereoscopic studies. The resulting roentgenograms, descriptively called mammograms, give an accurate anatomic pattern of the injected ductal system. Any pathologic condition that alters the size, shape or conformation of the lactiferous ducts is readily appreciated. Similar visualization studies can be made by inflating the breast tissues with air. This second form of study has been termed aeromammography. The technical simplicity and the diagnostic value of such visualizations are vividly portrayed in the cases reported here.

BILATERAL BREAST PAPILLOMAS 

Case 1.—  Miss R. S., aged 41, complained of a bleeding breast. During

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