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Council on Foods and Nutrition

JAMA. 1945;128(4):283-287. doi:10.1001/jama.1945.02860210039010.
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Martin, G. J.:  Mixtures of Pure Amino Acids as Substitutes for Dietary Protein , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 55:182 ( (March) ) 1944.
Kinsey, V. E., and Grant, W. M.:  Adequacy of the Essential Amino Acids for Growth of the Rat , Science 99:303 ( (April 14) ) 1944.
Almquist, H. J.:  The Amino Acid Requirements and Protein Metabolism of the Avian Organism , Federation Proc. 1:269 ( (Sept.) ) 1942.
Rose, W. C.; Hanes, W. J.; Johnson, J. E., and Warner, D. T.:  Further Experiments on the Role of the Amino Acids in Human Nutrition , J. Biol. Chem. 148: 457 ( (May) ) 1943
Holt, L. E., Jr.; Albanese, A. A.; Shettles, L. B.: Kadji, C., and Wangerin, D. M.:  Studies of Experimental Amino Acid Deficiency in Man: I. Nitrogen Balance , Federation Proc. 1 (Pt. (2) ): 116 (March 16) 1942.
Hier, S. W.; Graham, C. E., and Klein, D.:  Inhibitory Effect of Certain Amino Acids on Growth of Young Male Rats , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 56: 187 ( (June) ) 1944.
White, A., and Sayers, M. A.:  Accelerated Rat Growth Rate on Dietary Nitrogen Obtained from Pancreas , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 51:270 ( (Nov.) ) 1942.
Arginine is synthesized by the animal organism but not at a rate rapid enough to meet the demands for normal growth.
Rose, W. C.:  The Nutritive Significance of Amino Acids , Physiol. Rev. 18: 109 ( (Jan.) ) 1938
Rose, W. C., and Fierke, S. S.:  The Relation of Aspartic Acid and Glucosamine to Growth , J. Biol. Chem. 143: 115 ( (March) ) 1942
Rose, W. C., and Rice, E. E.:  The Significance of the Amino Acids in Canine Nutrition , Science 90: 186 ( (Aug. 25) ) 1939
Hartmann, A. F.; Meeker, C. S.; Perley, A. M., and McGinnis, H. G.:  Studies of Amino Acid Administration; Utilization of Enzymatic Digest of Casein , J. Pediat. 20:308 ( (March) ) 1942
Shohl, A. T.; Butler, A. M.; Blackfan, K. D., and MacLachlan, E.:  Nitrogen Metabolism During the Oral and Parenteral Administration of the Amino Acids of Hydrolyzed Casein , J. Pediat. 15:469 ( (Oct.) ) 1939
Albanese, A. A.; Holt, L. E., Jr.; Brumback, J. E., Jr.; Kadji, C., and Wangerin, D. M.:  Nitrogen Balance in Experimental Lysine Deficiency in Man , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 48: 728 ( (Dec.) ) 1941.
Holt, L. E., Jr.; Albanese, A. A.; Brumback, J. E., Jr.; Kadji, C., and Wangerin, D.:  Nitrogen Balance in Experimental Tryptophan Deficiency in Man , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 48: 726 ( (Dec.) ) 1941.
Beiling, C. A., and Lee, R. E.:  Treatment of Hypoproteinemia by Oral Administration of Protein Hydrolysates , Arch. Surg. 43: 735 ( (Nov.) ) 1941.
Robscheit-Robbins, Frieda S.; Miller, L. L., and Whipple, G. H.:  Hemoglobin and Plasma Protein: Simultaneous Production During Continued Bleeding as Influenced by Amino Acids, Plasma, Hemoglobin and Digests of Serum, Hemoglobin and Casein , J. Exper. Med. 77:375 ( (April) ) 1943.
Madden, S. C.; Carter, J. R.; Kattus, A. A., Jr.; Miller, L. L., and Whipple, G. H.:  Ten Amino Acids Essential for Plasma Protein Production Effective Orally or Intravenously , J. Exper. Med. 77:277 ( (March) ) 1943.
Elman, R., and Lischer, C.:  The Occurrence and Correction of Hypoproteinemia (Hypoalbuminemia) in Surgical Patients , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 76:503 ( (June) ) 1943.
Lewis, H. B.:  Proteins in Nutrition , J. A. M. A. 120:198 ( (Sept. 19) ) 1942.
Albanese, A. A., and Irby, V.:  Observations on the Biological Value of a Mixture of Essential Amino Acids , Science 98: 286 (Sept. 24) ) 1943
Bauer, C. D., and Berg, C. P.:  The Amino Acids Required for Growth in Mice and the Availability of Their Optical Isomers , J. Nutrition 26:51 ( (July) ) 1943
Elman, R.:  Parenteral Replacement of Protein with the Amino Acids of Hydrolyzed Casein , Ann. Surg. 112: 594 ( (Oct.) ) 1940.
Farr, L. E.:  Indications for the Therapeutic Use of Intravenous Amino Acids , Connecticut M. J. 5:24 ( (Jan.) ) 1941
The specific dynamic action of protein is a by-product and not an intrinsic maintenance need for this foodstuff. On the usual milk diets of infants and mixed diets of children this effect produces a rise of between 5 and 10 per cent above basal metabolic levels. Similarly, exercise does not raise the protein requirement, provided the total dietary calories are adequate.
Vierordt, H.: Anatomische, physiologische und physikalische-Daten und Habellen , Jena, G. Fischer, 1906.
Gordon, H. H., and McNamara, H.:  Fat Excretion of Premature Infants: I. Effect on Fecal Fat Decreasing Fat Intake , Am. J. Dis. Child. 62: 328 ( (Aug.) ) 1941.
Catherwood, R., and Stearns, G.:  Creatine and Creatinine Excretion in Infancy , J. Biol. Chem. 119: 201 ( (June) ) 1937
Benjamin, H. R.; Gordon, H. H., and Marples, E.:  Calcium and Phosphorus Requirements of Premature Infants , Am. J. Dis. Child. 65:412 ( (March) ) 1943.
These studies have been carried out by Dr. H. H. Gordon with the aid of the Children's Bureau of the United States Department of Labor. The results have not yet been fully analyzed and tabulated.
Gordon, H. H.; Levine, S. Z.; Wheatley, M. A., and Marples, E.:  Respiratory Metabolism in Infancy and in Childhood: XX. The Nitrogen Metabolism in Premature Infants—Comparative Studies of Human Milk and Cow's Milk , Am. J. Dis. Child. 54: 1030 ( (Nov.) ) 1937.
Kik, M. C.:  Nutritive Value of Lactalbumin versus Casein , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 37:129 ( (Oct.) ) 1937.
Levine, S. Z.; McEachern, T. H.; Wheatley, M. A.; Marples, E., and Kelly, M. D.:  Respiratory Metabolism in Infancy and in Childhood: XV. Daily Energy Requirements of Normal Infants , Am. J. Dis. Child. 50:596 ( (Sept.) ) 1935
Marples, E.:  Creatinuria in Infancy and in Childhood: II. Creatinuria of Premature Infants , Am. J. Dis. Child. 64: 996 ( (Dec.) ) 1942
Stearns, G.:  The Mineral Metabolism of Normal Infants , Physiol. Rev. 19:415 ( (July) ) 1939.
Moulton, C. R.:  Age and Chemical Development in Mammals , J. Biol. Chem. 57:79 ( (Aug.) ) 1923.
Levine, S. Z.; Dann, M., and Marples, E.:  A Defect in the Metabolism of Tyrosine and Phenylalanine in Premature Infants: III. Demonstration of the Irreversible Conversion of Phenylalanine to Tyrosine in the Human Organism , J. Clin. Investigation 22:551 ( (July) ) 1943
Koehne, M., and Morrell, E.:  Food Requirement of Girls from 6 to 13 Years of Age , Am. J. Dis. Child. 47:548 ( (March) ) 1934
Wait, B., and Roberts, L. J.:  Studies in the Food Requirement of Adolescent Girls: III. The Protein Intake of Well Nourished Girls 10 to 16 Years of Age , J. Am. Dietet. A. 8:403 ( (Jan.) ) 1933
Rose, M. S.: The Foundations of Nutrition , New York, Macmillan Company, 1933
Daniels, A. L.; Hutton, M. K.: Knott, E. M.; Wright, O. E.; Everson, G. J., and Schoular, F.:  A Study of the Protein Needs of Preschool Children , J. Nutrition 9:91 ( (Jan.) ) 1935
Maroney, J. W., and Johnstone, J. A.:  Caloric and Protein Requirements and Basal Metabolism of Children from 4 to 14 Years , Am. J. Dis. Child. 54:29 ( (July) ) 1937
Hawks, J. E.; Bray, M. M., and Dye, M.:  The Influence of Diet on the Nitrogen Balances of Preschool Children , J. Nutrition 15:125 ( (Feb.) ) 1938
Wang, C. C.; Kern, R., and Kaucher, M.:  Metabolism of Undernourished Children: IX. A Study of the Basal Metabolism, Caloric Balance and Protein Metabolism During a Period of Gain in Weight , Am. J. Dis. Child. 38:476 ( (Sept.) ) 1929
Rose, W. C., and Wood, T. R.:  The Synthesis of Cystine in Vivo , J. Biol. Chem. 141:381 ( (Nov.) ) 1941
Womack, M.; Kemmerer, K. S., and Rose, W. C.:  The Relation of Cystine and Methionine to Growth , J. Biol. Chem. 121:403 ( (Nov.) ) 1937
Butler, A. M.:  Nutritional Requirements in Infancy and in Childhood , Am. J. Dis. Child. 64:898 ( (Nov.) ) 1942
Boyd, J. D.:  Prescribed Diets for Normal Children , J. Pediat. 24:616 ( (June) ) 1944
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1016/S0022-3476(44)80085-3]]
Inadequate Diets and Nutritional Deficiencies in the United States: Their Prevalence and Significance , Bulletin 109, National Research Council, (November) 1943.
Turner, D. F.:  Selection of Protein Containing Foods to Meet Protein Requirements , J. A. M. A. , to be published.
Williams, P. F.:  Importance of Adequate Protein Nutrition in Pregnancy , J. A. M. A. 127:1052 ( (April 21) ) 1945
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1001/jama.1945.02860160028008]]
Stare, F. J., and Thorn, G. W.:  Protein Nutrition in Problems of Medical Interest , J. A. M. A. 127: 1120 ( (April 28) ) 1945
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1001/jama.1945.02860170032008]]
Lund, C. C., and Levenson, S. M.:  Protein in Surgery , J. A. M. A. 128:95 ( (May 12) ) 1945
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1001/jama.1945.02860220026007]]
Anderson, A. F., and Schloss, O. M.:  Allergy to Cow's Milk in Infants with Nutritional Disorders , Am. J. Dis. Child. 26:451 ( (Nov.) ) 1923.
Hartmann, A. F.; Lawler, H. J., and Meeker, C. S.:  Studies of Amino Acid Administration: II. Clinical Uses of an Enzymatic Digest of Casein , J. Pediat. 24:37 ( (April) ) 1944
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1016/S0022-3476(44)80014-2]]
Shohl, A. T.; May, C. D., and Shwachman, H.:  Studies of Nitrogen and Fat Metabolism of Infants and Children with Pancreatic Fibrosis , J. Pediat. 23:267 ( (Sept.) ) 1943
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1016/S0022-3476(43)80002-0]]
Shohl, A. T.:  Nitrogen Storage Following Intravenous and Oral Administration of Casein Hydrolysate to Infants with Acute Gastrointestinal Disturbance , J. Clin. Investigation 22:257 ( (March) ) 1943
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1172/JCI101391]]
Cook, M. M.:  Diarrheal Diseases in the Newborn Infant , J. Missouri M. A. 40: 64 ( (March) ) 1943
Weech, A. A.:  Puzzles of Protein Privation: A Decade of Research into the Biologic Effects of Restricted Dietary Protein , J. Pediat. 19:608 ( (Nov.) ) 1941
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1016/S0022-3476(41)80082-1]]
Best, C. H., and Ridout, J. H.:  The Pancreas and the Deposition of Fat in the Liver , Am. J. Physiol. 122: 67 ( (April) ) 1938
Ravdin, I. S.:  Protection of Liver from Injury , Surgery 8:204 ( (Aug.) ) 1940
Farr, L. E.; Emerson, K., Jr., and Fritcher, P. H.:  Comparative Efficiency of Intravenous Amino Acids and Dietary Protein in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome , J. Pediat. 17: 595 ( (Nov.) ) 1940
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1016/S0022-3476(40)80131-5]]
Wilson, S. J., and Walzer, M.:  Absorption of Undigested Protein in Human Beings: IV. Absorption of Unaltered Egg Proteins in Infants and Children , Am. J. Dis. Child. 50:49 ( (July) ) 1935
Ratner, B., and Gruehl, H. L.:  Passage of Native Proteins Through the Normal Gastrointestinal Wall , J. Clin. Investigation 13:517 ( (July) ) 1934
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1172/JCI100602]]
Lippard, V. W.; Schloss, O. M., and Johnson, P. A.:  Immune Reactions Induced in Infants by Intestinal Absorption of Incompletely Digested Cow's Milk Protein , Am. J. Dis. Child. 51:562 ( (March) ) 1936
Hill, L. W.:  Amino Acids as a Source of Nitrogen for Allergic Infants , J. A. M. A. 116:2135 ( (May 10) ) 1941
Link to Article[[XSLOpenURL/10.1001/jama.1941.02820190011003]]


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