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Health at the Gateway: Problems and International Obligations of a Seaport City.

JAMA. 1931;97(13):954. doi:10.1001/jama.1931.02730130058046.
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This is an interesting account of health and sanitary developments at the port of Liverpool by a man who has been identified with the work for almost half a century. As the author states, communicable diseases enter a country exclusively at the ports and hence great responsibility rests on those in charge of port sanitation and the medical examination of immigrants. The subject is treated from an historical standpoint with the result that much valuable epidemiologic information is made available, and many interesting quotations from reports of health officials of half a century ago are included. All phases of the subject are discussed, including administration, infectious diseases, housing, water supply and food control. It is interesting to note that district nursing was begun in 1859 and that experiences in Liverpool were responsible for starting the first school of hygiene in England. The author has given health authorities a readable account


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