Continuous observation seems to warrant attracting attention to methods of estimating the functional reduction of certain common joint fractures as they are recorded on roentgenograms.
The normal anatomic relationship of joint surfaces and anatomic landmarks may be plotted with almost geometrical exactness on roentgenograms taken in common standard positions. There are certain regional surgical axioms that guide the surgical estimation of proper reduction of fractures at the joints. These axioms have been well known, but their appreciation has probably been denied the continuous merit they deserve because the extensive use of roentgen examinations has relegated them to the background.
The x-rays have not changed anatomic landmarks or altered surgical axioms. It is with the idea of interpreting roentgenograms with due regard to recognized surgical principles that this simple paper is presented. The ankle, wrist and elbow will be discussed from a roentgeno-anatomic standpoint.
No matter what the character