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JAMA. 1943;123(4):212-213. doi:10.1001/jama.1943.02840390032011.
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Morgan1 of the Lister Institute, London, has reported synthesis of an artificial antigen capable of stimulating the production of exceptionally high titer specific agglutinins and hemolysins for group A human erythrocytes.

About twenty-five years ago the theory of the production of antigens was broadened to include relatively simple organic compounds which in themselves are incapable of stimulating the in vivo production of specific antibodies. These are generally known as "partial antigens," "haptens" or "specificity determinants," since they can be raised to full antigenicity by conjugation with proteins or other colloidal "carriers." Thus combined they stimulate the in vivo production of polyvalent (or multiple) antibodies giving specific precipitin reactions with the resulting protein-hapten complex. One successful application of this technic is the conversion of bacterial polysaccharides into hapten-protein complexes which induce the formation of polysaccharide specific antibodies. Less well known is the preparation of successful antigenic conjugates with such complex


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