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THE TOXICITY OF BILE

JAMA. 1928;91(14):1040. doi:10.1001/jama.1928.02700140042016.
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The physiologic fluids of the body are by no means adapted without exception for distribution to any part of the living organism or without detriment to the latter. Even the circulating blood is normally kept within the restraining walls of the blood vascular system. The lymph derived from it might at best be regarded as a fluid somewhat adapted to universal contact with the tissues. It requires little argument to furnish conviction that the acid gastric juice, for example, which is an advantageous constituent of the gastric content, may readily become an exceedingly noxious agent if perchance it finds its way into a region such as the peritoneal cavity. Likewise, it has long been recognized that the bile exerts the effects of a "foreign" substance when it escapes from its usual confines in the biliary tract and the alimentary canal. Transfer of bile into the blood leads to the symptoms

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