The earliest description of a hypophyseal disorder, that of acromegaly by Pierre Marie, and its identification with pituitary overactivity by Minkowski, was followed by reference of the reverse condition—dwarfism—to underactivity of the hypophysis by Paltauf. These deductions, based essentially on a hypertrophied or diminished pituitary gland, were, of course, far from demonstrating the existence in the gland of a specific ferment-like substance needed in some fundamental way before the process of growth could take place in any of the higher animals. The study of the effects of the gland substance itself could alone bring such a demonstration.
EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION OF DWARFISM
An immense step forward was taken by the experimental production of dwarfism when the gland was removed from young animals.1 The classic experiments of Aschner, which were done with puppies with littermate controls, showed that an immediate arrest of growth and development was occasioned by the operation.