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Frederic W. Ilfeld, M.D.; Hall G. Holder, M.D.
JAMA. 1942;120(6):448-449. doi:10.1001/jama.1942.82830410004008a.
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Prominence or "winging" of the scapula was described in 1825 by Velpeau, who attributed this deformity to paralysis of the serratus anterior muscle.1 Since that time cases of this type have been reported due to poliomyelitis, birth palsy, postinfluenzal neuritis, diphtheria, erysipelas, cerebral palsy and progressive muscular dystrophy.2 Ball3 has reported a case of paralysis of the serratus anterior in a midshipman following an injection of antitetanic serum, and McGoogan4 reported 3 cases occurring during the puerperium. Such trauma as the following may cause the same deformity: swinging at a punching bag and missing, being kicked by a horse, pulling energetically on a hand clutch, golfing, using crutches, pressure from a cast, the postural habit of sleeping on the outstretched arm,5 following an abdominal operation,6 carrying weights on the shoulder and a direct fall.1 Search of the literature on this subject fails to


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