Study concept and design: Kahwati, Feltner, Halpern, Jonas.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kahwati, Halpern, Boland, Jonas.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Kahwati, Halpern, Amick, Jonas.
Obtained funding: Feltner, Woodell, Jonas.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Feltner, Woodell, Boland, Amick, Weber.
Study supervision: Kahwati, Feltner, Halpern, Jonas.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This research was co-funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) under a contract to support the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality contract HHSA-290-2012-00015i; Task Order 4).
Role of the Funders/Sponsors: Investigators worked with USPSTF members and AHRQ staff to develop the scope, analytic framework, and key questions for this review. AHRQ had no role in study selection, quality assessment, or synthesis. AHRQ staff provided project oversight; reviewed the report to ensure that the analysis met methodological standards, and distributed the draft for peer review. Otherwise, AHRQ had no role in the conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript findings.
Additional Contributions: The authors gratefully acknowledge the following individuals for their contributions to this project, including AHRQ staff (Tina Fan, MD, and Tracy Wolff, MD), CDC Staff (Philip LoBue, MD, and Christine Ho, MD), Kaiser Permanente Research Affiliates EPC Staff (Evelyn Whitlock, MD), RTI International/University of North Carolina EPC Staff (Meera Viswanathan, PhD, Russell Harris, MD, Molly Howard, PharmD, Makda Majerette, BA, Roberta C. Wines, MPH, Christiane Voisin, MSLS, Rachael Posey, MSLS, Janice Handler, BA, Jennifer Drolet, MA, and Loraine Monroe). The authors also acknowledge the contributions of members of the US Preventive Services Task Force. No specific compensation was provided to any contributors listed here.
Additional Information: A draft version of the full evidence report underwent external peer review from 4 content experts (John Bernardo, MD, Boston University School of Medicine, Dick Menzies, MD, McGill University, Neil Schluger, MD, Columbia University Medical Center), 1 methodologic expert (Steven Teutsch, MD, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health and Society Scholar and independent consultant), and 4 federal partner reviewers, all from the CDC. Comments from reviewers were presented to the USPSTF during its deliberation of the evidence and were considered in preparing the final evidence review.
Editorial Disclaimer: This evidence report is presented as a document in support of the accompanying USPSTF Recommendation Statement. It did not undergo additional peer review after submission to JAMA.