Study concept and design: Lozano, Henrikson, Dunn, Morrison, Whitlock.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Lozano, Henrikson, Dunn, Morrison, Nguyen, Blasi, Anderson, Whitlock.
Drafting of the manuscript: Lozano, Henrikson, Morrison.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Lozano, Henrikson, Dunn, Nguyen, Blasi, Anderson, Whitlock.
Statistical analysis: Lozano, Anderson.
Obtained funding: Lozano.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Lozano, Henrikson, Morrison, Nguyen, Blasi.
Study supervision: Lozano, Henrikson.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This research was funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under a contract to support the USPSTF.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: Investigators worked with USPSTF members and AHRQ staff to develop the scope, analytic framework, and key questions for this review. AHRQ had no role in study selection, quality assessment, or synthesis. AHRQ staff provided project oversight; reviewed the report to ensure that the analysis met methodological standards, and distributed the draft for peer review. Otherwise, AHRQ had no role in the conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript findings.
Additional Contributions: We gratefully acknowledge the following individuals for their contributions to this project: the AHRQ staff; the USPSTF; David Grossman, MD, MPH (Group Health Research Institute), for his feedback on the research plan; So Man, PhD (AstraZeneca), for providing additional trial data; and Evidence-based Practice Center staff members Smyth Lai, MLS, Christel Kratohvil, Gabrielle Gundersen, BA, Brittany Burda, MPH, Caitlyn Senger, MPH, Tracy Beil, MS, and Aaron Scrol, MA. USPSTF members, expert consultants, and peer reviewers did not receive financial compensation for their contributions.
Additional Information: A draft version of this evidence report underwent external peer review from 3 content experts (Stephen R. Daniels, MD, PhD, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children’s Hospital Colorado; Patrick McBride, MD, MPH, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health; and Alpo Vuorio, MD, Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki). Comments were presented to the USPSTF during its deliberation of the evidence and were considered in preparing the final evidence review.
Editorial Disclaimer: This evidence report is presented as a document in support of the accompanying USPSTF Recommendation Statement. It did not undergo additional peer review after submission to JAMA.