Study concept and design: Wernli, Henrikson, Morrison, Nguyen.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Wernli, Henrikson, Morrison, Nguyen, Pocobelli, Blasi.
Drafting of the manuscript: Wernli, Henrikson, Morrison, Nguyen, Pocobelli.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Wernli, Henrikson, Morrison, Nguyen, Pocobelli, Blasi.
Statistical analysis: Wernli, Henrikson.
Obtained funding: Wernli.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Wernli, Morrison, Nguyen, Pocobelli, Blasi.
Study supervision: Wernli.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This research was funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under a contract to support the USPSTF.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: Investigators worked with USPSTF members and AHRQ staff to develop the scope, analytic framework, and key questions for this review. AHRQ had no role in study selection, quality assessment, or synthesis. AHRQ staff provided project oversight, reviewed the report to ensure that the analysis met methodological standards, and distributed the draft for peer review. Otherwise, AHRQ had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript findings; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We gratefully acknowledge the following individuals for their contributions to this project: the AHRQ staff; the US Preventive Services Task Force; Evidence-based Practice Center staff members Evelyn Whitlock, MD, MPH; Tracy Beil, MS; Erin Bowles, MPH; Brittany Burda, MPH; Gabrielle Gundersen; Christel Kratohvil; Smyth Lai, MLS; Jennifer Lin, MD; Caitlyn Senger, MPH; and Chris Tachibana, PhD; Joanne Aitken, PhD, MSc; Laura Ferris, MD, PhD; Sandra J. Lee, ScD, and Martin Weinstock, MD, PhD, for providing expert review of the draft report and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Veterans Health Affairs, and the Military Health System for providing Federal Partner review of the draft report. The USPSTF members, expert consultants, peer reviewers, and federal partner reviewers did not receive financial compensation for their contributions.
Additional Information: A draft version of this evidence report underwent external peer review from 4 content experts (Joanne Aitken, PhD, MSc, Cancer Council Queensland; Laura Ferris, MD, PhD, University of Pittsburgh; Sandra J. Lee, ScD, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health; and Martin Weinstock, MD, PhD, Brown University) and 4 federal partners: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Veterans Health Affairs, and the Military Health System. Comments were presented to the USPSTF during its deliberation of the evidence and were considered in preparing the final evidence review.
Editorial Disclaimer: This evidence report is presented as a document in support of the accompanying USPSTF Recommendation Statement. It did not undergo additional peer review after submission to JAMA.