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Edward G. Martin, M.D.
JAMA. 1931;96(14):1168-1169. doi:10.1001/jama.1931.02720400066032.
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To the Editor:  —The first spinal anesthetic that I recall at Harper Hospital was in 1903, when the German preparation stovaine was used. There was considerable toxicity reported following the use of this preparation in this country, and spinal anesthesia did not become really popular until the advent of procaine hydrochloride. Since then its popularity has increased until at the present time it is the anesthetic of choice in most of those cases in which general anesthesia was formerly administered. It may be said that there are two schools who enjoy debating respectively the superiority of "spinocaine" (lighter than the spinal fluid) and plain procaine dissolved in the spinal fluid itself. What speaks most eloquently for spinal anesthesia is to observe the ultraconservative surgeons adopting it as first choice in most of their work.Following the administration of the average dose of procaine, from 100 to 200 mg., its effectiveness


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