0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Original Investigation |

Trends in Obesity Prevalence Among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 1988-1994 Through 2013-2014

Cynthia L. Ogden, PhD1; Margaret D. Carroll, MSPH1; Hannah G. Lawman, PhD1; Cheryl D. Fryar, MSPH1; Deanna Kruszon-Moran, MS1; Brian K. Kit, MD, MPH1,2; Katherine M. Flegal, PhD1
[+] Author Affiliations
1National Center for Health Statistics, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland
2US Public Health Service, Rockville, Maryland
JAMA. 2016;315(21):2292-2299. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.6361.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Importance  Previous analyses of obesity trends among children and adolescents showed an increase between 1988-1994 and 1999-2000, but no change between 2003-2004 and 2011-2012, except for a significant decline among children aged 2 to 5 years.

Objectives  To provide estimates of obesity and extreme obesity prevalence for children and adolescents for 2011-2014 and investigate trends by age between 1988-1994 and 2013-2014.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years with measured weight and height in the 1988-1994 through 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

Exposures  Survey period.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) at or above the sex-specific 95th percentile on the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BMI-for-age growth charts. Extreme obesity was defined as a BMI at or above 120% of the sex-specific 95th percentile on the CDC BMI-for-age growth charts. Detailed estimates are presented for 2011-2014. The analyses of linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were conducted using 9 survey periods. Trend analyses between 2005-2006 and 2013-2014 also were conducted.

Results  Measurements from 40 780 children and adolescents (mean age, 11.0 years; 48.8% female) between 1988-1994 and 2013-2014 were analyzed. Among children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years, the prevalence of obesity in 2011-2014 was 17.0% (95% CI, 15.5%-18.6%) and extreme obesity was 5.8% (95% CI, 4.9%-6.8%). Among children aged 2 to 5 years, obesity increased from 7.2% (95% CI, 5.8%-8.8%) in 1988-1994 to 13.9% (95% CI, 10.7%-17.7%) (P < .001) in 2003-2004 and then decreased to 9.4% (95% CI, 6.8%-12.6%) (P = .03) in 2013-2014. Among children aged 6 to 11 years, obesity increased from 11.3% (95% CI, 9.4%-13.4%) in 1988-1994 to 19.6% (95% CI, 17.1%-22.4%) (P < .001) in 2007-2008, and then did not change (2013-2014: 17.4% [95% CI, 13.8%-21.4%]; P = .44). Obesity increased among adolescents aged 12 to 19 years between 1988-1994 (10.5% [95% CI, 8.8%-12.5%]) and 2013-2014 (20.6% [95% CI, 16.2%-25.6%]; P < .001) as did extreme obesity among children aged 6 to 11 years (3.6% [95% CI, 2.5%-5.0%] in 1988-1994 to 4.3% [95% CI, 3.0%-6.1%] in 2013-2014; P = .02) and adolescents aged 12 to 19 years (2.6% [95% CI, 1.7%-3.9%] in 1988-1994 to 9.1% [95% CI, 7.0%-11.5%] in 2013-2014; P < .001). No significant trends were observed between 2005-2006 and 2013-2014 (P value range, .09-.87).

Conclusions and Relevance  In this nationally representative study of US children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years, the prevalence of obesity in 2011-2014 was 17.0% and extreme obesity was 5.8%. Between 1988-1994 and 2013-2014, the prevalence of obesity increased until 2003-2004 and then decreased in children aged 2 to 5 years, increased until 2007-2008 and then leveled off in children aged 6 to 11 years, and increased among adolescents aged 12 to 19 years.

Figures in this Article

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Figures

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 1.
Prevalence of Obesity and Extreme Obesity in US Children and Adolescents Aged 2 to 19 Years From 1988-1994 Through 2013-2014

Data are from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. The error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence estimates are weighted.

aDefined as at or above the sex-specific 95th percentile on the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BMI-for-age growth charts.

bDefined as at or above 120% of the sex-specific 95th percentile on the CDC BMI-for-age growth charts.

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 2.
Weighted Estimates for US Children and Adolescents Aged 2 to 19 Years in the 50th and 95th Percentiles of Body Mass Index From 1988-1994 and 2011-2014

Data are from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

Graphic Jump Location

Tables

References

CME


You need to register in order to view this quiz.

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

8,376 Views
1 Citations
×

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

See Also...
Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles
The effect of morbid obesity on morphine glucuronidation. Pharmacol Res Published online Sep 5, 2016;
Jobs
JAMAevidence.com

Promoción de la salud en el ciclo de vida

brightcove.createExperiences();