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In This Issue of JAMA |

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JAMA. 2016;315(21):2251-2253. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.14292.
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RESEARCH

In analyses of weight and height data from 5 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2005-2006 through 2013-2014), Flegal and colleagues found that the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity in 2013-2014 was 35.0% among men and 40.4% among women. Between 2005 and 2014, the prevalence of obesity increased among women but not men. In an Editorial, Zylke and Bauchner discuss the relentless challenge of obesity in the United States.

Ogden and colleagues analyzed data from 40 780 child and adolescent participants in the 1988-1994 through 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and found that the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents in 2011-2014 was 17% and the prevalence of extreme obesity was 5.8%. Trends in child and adolescent obesity varied by age during the period of study.

CME

Katki and colleagues developed and validated a risk-based model for computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer in analyses of data from 2 lung cancer screening trials and the National Health Interview Survey. The authors report that compared with screening based on the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation, application of their risk-based model would be associated with a greater number of lung cancer deaths prevented and a lower number needed to screen to prevent 1 lung cancer death. An Editorial by Gould discusses lung cancer screening strategies.

Exposure of young animals to anesthetics impairs neurocognitive function. In a cohort study involving 105 healthy sibling pairs—with 1 child of each pair having a single exposure to general anesthesia before age 36 months—Sun and colleagues found no association between anesthesia exposure and global cognitive function in later childhood.

CLINICAL REVIEW & EDUCATION

This US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) Recommendation Statement addresses syphilis screening for nonpregnant adults and adolescents. The USPSTF recommends screening individuals who are at increased risk of infection, including men who have sex with men and persons living with human immunodeficiency virus. Other factors to consider include a history of incarceration or commercial sex work, race/ethnicity, male sex, and age. In an Editorial, Clement and Hicks discuss reasons for the current resurgence of syphilis in the United States.

Cantor and colleagues summarize findings from the US Preventive Services Task Force review of the evidence relating to routine screening of nonpregnant adults and adolescents for syphilis infection. Evidence supports that individuals with human immunodeficiency virus or men who have sex with men should be screened every 3 months. Treponemal or nontreponemal tests are accurate screening tests but require confirmation. Research is needed to assess the effect of screening on clinical outcomes, effective screening strategies in various patient populations, and the harms of screening.

CME

An article in JAMA Psychiatry reported that cannabis use for up to 20 years was associated with periodontal disease but not with other surrogate markers of adverse physical health in early midlife. In this From The JAMA Network article, Hill and Weiss discuss reasons to discourage cannabis use—including adverse effects on brain function and mental health.

This JAMA Clinical Evidence Synopsis article by Elbers and colleagues summarizes findings from a Cochrane review of 11 clinical trials (1817 total patients) of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions to reduce fatigue in patients with Parkinson disease. Rasagiline, modafinil, and doxepin are associated with improvement in fatigue without an increase in adverse effects. However, the quality of the evidence is limited.

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CME
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The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
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