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R. K. LEE-BROWN, M.D., Ch.M.; J. W. S. LAIDLEY, M.B., Ch.M.
JAMA. 1927;89(25):2094-2098. doi:10.1001/jama.1927.02690250016006.
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This article is an attempt to correlate the work that has been done up to the present on pyelovenous backflow. This subject now has acquired a considerable literature and it may be of value to present a short summary of the work that has been done, together with some original observations of our own.

We have divided our subject into two main headings. Under the first we have attempted a short exposition of the evidence produced by different authors either in favor of or against the actual occurrence of pyelovenous backflow, and we have added tables displaying our own results in a series of seventy-five varied specimens. Under the second heading we assume the occurrence of pyelovenous backflow proved beyond reasonable doubt, and attempt to explain the mechanism by which the phenomenon is produced.

RECENT WORK  It has been noted on several occasions by observers of the nineteenth century and


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