Ocular tragedies are increasing in industry, in the home, in the school and in travel; so there is need for a review of the traumatic changes in the fundus and their differentiation from the nontraumatic. The application of facts learned in private practice is of immense practical value in times of stress, for it enables the alert physician to interpret the signs of early damage as well as to appraise correctly the end results.
The dominant signs of ocular injuries are hemorrhage, edema, ischemia and destruction of tissue. Their amount, location and extent provide the unpredictable elements.
A foreign body may strike the eye with varying force and from various angles. There is no accepted, dogmatic rule for determining the resulting changes in the fundus, but Lagrange, in his monumental sketchbook, presented conclusions well substantiated by his drawings and for certain war injuries laid the foundation for future advances.