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TRANSFUSION OF BLOOD AND OF BLOOD SUBSTITUTES

JAMA. 1941;117(19):1627-1629. doi:10.1001/jama.1941.02820450051017.
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Attempts at blood transfusion during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were limited to the use of blood from animals and of defibrinated blood. The operation of blood transfusion does not present great difficulties except for the tendency of the blood to clot. In 1901 Landsteiner discovered the laws of isohemoagglutination and isohemolysis of blood; then Jansky, in 1907, established the existence of four distinct blood groups and their compatibilities. The gravest danger of blood transfusion was thus overcome. The next problem was a purely technical one. Methods of blood vessel anastomosis were developed by Carrel and Crile and made possible direct artery to vein transfusion. The direct method required surgical skill and finesse possessed by few. The method was soon displaced by an indirect method of transfusion in which blood from the donor was collected in a vessel coated with a layer of paraffin. Hustin1 of Belgium proposed in

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