Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Guirguis-Blake, Senger, Webber, Whitlock.
Drafting of the manuscript: Guirguis-Blake, Senger, Webber, Whitlock.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Guirguis-Blake, Senger, Webber, Mularski.
Statistical analysis: Senger, Webber.
Obtained funding: Whitlock.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Senger, Webber, Mularski.
Study supervision: Guirguis-Blake, Senger.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This research was funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under a contract to support the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: This review was conducted by the Kaiser Permanente Research Affiliates Evidence-based Practice Center under contract to AHRQ. Investigators worked with USPSTF members and AHRQ staff to develop the scope, analytic framework, and key questions for this review. AHRQ had no role in study selection, quality assessment, or synthesis. AHRQ staff provided project oversight, reviewed the report to ensure that the analysis met methodological standards, and distributed the draft for peer review. Otherwise, AHRQ had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We gratefully acknowledge the following individuals for their contributions to this project: the AHRQ staff; the US Preventive Services Task Force; and Evidence-based Practice Center staff members Smyth Lai, MLS; Kevin Lutz, MFA; and Keshia Bigler, BS. USPSTF members and peer reviewers did not receive financial compensation for their contributions.
Additional Information: A draft version of this evidence report underwent external peer review from 3 content experts (Daniel Kotz, PhD, Maastricht University; Anthony Stanley, MD, University of South Wales; and Barbara Yawn, MD, University of Minnesota). Comments were presented to the USPSTF during its deliberation of the evidence and were considered in preparing the final evidence review.
Editorial Disclaimer: This evidence report is presented as a document in support of the accompanying USPSTF Recommendation Statement. It did not undergo additional peer review after submission to JAMA.