Study concept and design: Gerber, Localio, Grundmeier, Stallings, Zaoutis.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Gerber, Bryan, Ross, Parks, Localio, Grundmeier.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Bryan, Ross, Daymont, Localio.
Obtained funding: Localio.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Ross, Parks, Grundmeier, Stallings.
Study supervision: Gerber, Localio, Stallings, Zaoutis.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge Evanette K. Burrows, BS, Department of Biomedical and Health Informatics at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, for her assistance with the extraction of electronic health record data for this project. She did not receive any compensation for this work. We also thank the network of primary care clinicians, their patients, and their families for their contribution to this project and clinical research facilitated through the Pediatric Research Consortium at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.