Study concept and design: Cherkin, Sherman, Balderson, Cook, Turner.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Cherkin, Sherman, Balderson, Cook, Anderson, Hawkes, Hansen, Turner.
Drafting of the manuscript: Cherkin, Sherman, Balderson, Anderson, Hansen, Turner.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Cherkin, Sherman, Balderson, Cook, Anderson, Hawkes, Hansen, Turner.
Statistical analysis: Cook, Anderson.
Obtained funding: Cherkin.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Sherman, Cook, Anderson, Hawkes, Hansen, Turner.
Study supervision: Cherkin, Sherman, Balderson, Hawkes, Hansen, Turner.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: Research reported in this article was supported by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NICCIH) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under award number R01AT006226.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The NICCIH had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of NIH.
Previous Presentation: Dr Cherkin presented a brief summary of the preliminary results at the “Mindfulness & Compassion: The Art and Science of Contemplative Practice” conference on June 4, 2015, at San Francisco State University.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the support provided by the following individuals: Kristin Delaney, MPH, Group Health Research Institute Programmer Analyst, for extracting information from data systems, assisting with the design and development of data tracking systems, and interim analyses (received salary support from the NCCIH grant); Zoe Bermet, LMP, John Ewing, BFA, Kevin Filocamo, MA, Melissa Parson, MFA, Margie Wilcox, Group Health Research Institute Research Specialists, for participant recruitment, tracking, staffing classes, data entry, and interviews (received salary support from the NCCIH grant); Beth Kirlin, BA, Group Health Research Institute Project Manager, for implementation and oversight of project activities (received salary support from the NCCIH grant); Katherine Bradley, MD, Group Health Research Institute Medical Advisor, for adverse events review and oversight (not compensated); Robert Wellman, MS, Group Health Research Institute Biostatistician, for input on research design and implementation (received salary support from the NCCIH grant); Michelle Chapdelaine, BA, and Natalia Charamand, BA, Group Health Research Institute Research Support Specialists, for administrative support (received salary support from the NCCIH grant); Diane Hetrick, PT, and Carolyn McManus, PT, MS, MA, Swedish Hospital, Seattle, Washington, Tracy Skaer, PharmD, Department of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Pullman, Timothy Burnett, BA, Mindfullness Northwest, Bellingham, Washington, Vivian Folsom, MSS, LICSW, Rebecca Bohn, MA, Cheryl Cebula, MSW, ACSW, and Lorrie Jones, BSN, (all in private practice), for teaching the MBSR arm of the intervention (instructors were paid on a consultancy basis for classes taught); Brenda Stoelb, PhD, Bellevue College, Bellevue, Washington and Eastern Washington University, Cheney, Sonya Wood, PhD, St. Luke’s Rehabilitation Institute, Spokane, Washington, and Geoffrey Soleck, PhD, and Leslie Aaron, PhD, (both in private practice) for teaching the CBT arm of the intervention (instructors were paid on a consultancy basis for classes taught); Richard Deyo, MD, MPH, Department of Family Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, for providing medical consultancy and guidance on clinical issues (paid on a consultancy basis).