Published Online: March 15, 2016. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.1464.
Study concept and design: Dowell, Haegerich.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Dowell, Haegerich, Chou.
Drafting of the manuscript: Dowell, Haegerich, Chou.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Dowell, Haegerich, Chou.
Statistical analysis: Chou.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Haegerich.
Study supervision: Dowell, Haegerich.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Drs Dowell and Haegerich are employees of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr Chou was supported under contract through a detail at CDC. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supported the development of the guideline. Dr Chou’s activities were supported through a short-term detail under contract at CDC (15IPA-1505478). The clinical evidence review was updated based on a previously published 2014 report funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under contract to the Pacific Northwest Evidence-based Practice Center (contract 290-2012-00014-I). Abt Associates collected, managed, analyzed, and interpreted data in the contextual evidence review, funded through a contract (contract 200-2013-M-53890, task order 200-2015-F-62036) supported by CDC.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: CDC conducted the full guideline development process, directing the design and conduct of the systematic reviews; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, and approval for submission of the manuscript for publication. CDC staff members were responsible for the overall design and conduct of the guideline and preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript.
Core Expert Group: Pam Archer, MPH, Oklahoma State Department of Health; Jane Ballantyne, MD, University of Washington (retired); Amy Bohnert, MHS, PhD, University of Michigan; Bonnie Burman, ScD, Ohio Department on Aging; Roger Chou, MD, on detail to CDC under contract; Phillip Coffin, MD, MIA, University of California, San Francisco; Gary Franklin, MD, MPH, Washington State Department of Labor and Industries/University of Washington; Erin Krebs, MD, MPH, Minneapolis VA Health Care System/University of Minnesota; Mitchel Mutter, MD, Tennessee Department of Health; Lewis Nelson, MD, New York University School of Medicine; Trupti Patel, MD, Arizona Department of Health Services; Christina A. Porucznik, PhD, MSPH, University of Utah; Robert “Chuck” Rich, MD, American Academy of Family Physicians; Joanna Starrels, MD, MS, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University; Michael Steinman, MD, Society of General Internal Medicine; Thomas Tape, MD, American College of Physicians; Judith Turner, PhD, University of Washington. No compensation was received for serving as a member of the Core Expert Group. Disclosures may be found in the primary MMWR publication.
Stakeholder Review Group: American Academy of Neurology, John Markman, MD; American Academy of Pain Management, Bob Twillman, PhD; American Academy of Pain Medicine, Edward C. Covington, MD; American Academy of Pediatrics, Roger F. Suchyta, MD; American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kavitha V. Neerukonda, JD, MHA; American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network, Mark Fleury, PhD; American Chronic Pain Association, Penney Cowan; American College of Medical Toxicology, David Juurlink, BPharm, MD, PhD; American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Gerald “Jerry” F. Joseph Jr, MD; American Geriatrics Society, Bruce Ferrell, MD, and M. Carrington Reid, MD, PhD; American Hospital Association, Ashley Thompson; American Medical Association, Barry D. Dickinson, PhD; American Pain Society, Gregory Terman, MD, PhD; American Society of Addiction Medicine, Beth Haynes, MPPA; American Society of Anesthesiologists, Asokumar Buvanendran, MD; American Society of Hematology, Robert M. Plovnick, MD, MS; American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians, Sanford M. Silverman, MD; Physicians for Responsible Opioid Prescribing, Andrew Kolodny, MD. No compensation was received for serving as a member of the Stakeholder Review Group.
Opioid Guideline Workgroup: Chair: Christina Porucznik, PhD, MSPH; Workgroup members: Anne Burns, RPh; Penney Cowan; Chinazo Cunningham, MD, MS; Katherine Galluzzi, DO; Traci Green, PhD, MSC; Mitchell Katz, MD; Erin Krebs, MD, MPH; Gregory Terman, MD, PhD; Mark Wallace, MD. Workgroup consultants: Roger Chou, MD; Edward Covington, MD; Diana Eppolito; Michael Greene, MD; Steven Stanos, DO. Disclosures may be found in the primary MMWR publication.
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Board of Scientific Counselors: Chair: Stephen Hargarten, MD, MPH; Members: John Allegrante, PhD; Joan Marie Duwve, MD, Samuel Forjuoh, MD, MPH, DrPH, FGCP; Gerard Gioia, PhD; Deborah Gorman-Smith, PhD; Traci Green, PhD; Sherry Lynne Hamby, PhD; Robert Johnson, MD; Angela Mickalide, PhD, MCHES; Sherry Molock, PhD; Christina Porucznik, PhD, MSPH; Jay Silverman, PhD; Maria Testa, PhD; Shelly Timmons, MD, PhD; Ex officio members: Melissa Brodowski, PhD; Dawn Castillo, MPH; Wilson Compton, MD, MPE; Elizabeth Edgerton, MD, MPH; Thomas Feucht, PhD; Meredith Fox, PhD; Holly Hedegaard, MD, MSPH; John Howard, MD; Lyndon Joseph, PhD; Jinhee Lee, PharmD; Iris Mabry-Hernandez, MD, MPH; Valeri Maholmes, PhD; Angela Moore Parmley, PhD; Thomas Schroeder, MS. Disclosures may be found in the primary MMWR publication.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge Jeanmarie Perrone, MD, Matthew Bair, MD, and David Tauben, MD, for conducting initial peer reviews of the guideline for the CDC prior to journal submission; peer reviewers were not compensated for their contributions. We acknowledge Don Teater, MD, for facilitating the Core Expert Group. We acknowledge the work that the medical writers, editors, and reviewers from Ariande Labs provided to produce the checklist for prescribing opioids for chronic pain.