Published Online: March 15, 2016. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.0130.
Study concept and design: Wunsch, Wijeysundera, Neuman.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Wunsch, Neuman.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: All authors.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This work is supported in part by a New Investigator Award from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (Dr Wijeysundera) and a Merit Award from the Department of Anesthesia at the University of Toronto (Dr Wijeysundera).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. OptumInsight approved the manuscript specifically for accuracy of information related to Clinformatics Data Mart Database.