Author Contributions: Drs Freathy and Lawlor had full access to all of the data in the ALSPAC, EFSOCH, and HAPO (non-GWAS) studies and access to summary data from all contributing studies and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Palmer, Frayling, Lawlor, and Freathy jointly directed this work.
Study concept and design: Tyrrell, Frayling, Lawlor, Freathy.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Tyrrell, Richmond, Metrustry, Feenstra, Geller, Cavadino, Bradfield, de Geus, Evans, Ring, Murray, Bouchard, Hottenga, Willemsen, Hakonarson, Sørensen, Martin, Nohr, Knight, Spector, Grant, Jacobsson, Power, Sebert, Järvelin, Reichetzeder, Hocher, Hayes, Jaddoe, Hofman, Melbye, Kreiner-Møller, Bisgaard, Davey Smith, Hattersley, Hyppönen, Hivert, Felix, Lowe, Frayling, Lawlor, Freathy.
Drafting of the manuscript: Tyrrell, Richmond, Metrustry, Feenstra, Cavadino, Hyppönen, Hivert, Felix, Lowe, Frayling, Lawlor, Freathy.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: De Silva, Wood, McMahon, Evans, Kreiner-Møller, Geller, Allard, Hottenga, Bradfield, Hayes, Scholtens, Armstrong, Rangarajan, Horikoshi, McCarthy, Nodzenski, Paternoster, Das, Huikari, Painter, Morris, Medland, Lind, Berry, Myhre, Sengpiel, Tyrrell, Richmond, Metrustry, Feenstra, Cavadino, Felix, Lawlor, Freathy.
Obtained funding: Tyrrell, Feenstra, Evans, Paternoster, Spector, Jacobsson, Power, Martin, Serbert, Sørensen, Järvelin, Hocher, Hayes, Lowe, Grant, Hakonarson, Medland, Bouchard, Bradfield, de Geus, Jaddoe, Hofman, McCarthy, Melbye, Morris, Murray, Bisgaard, Davey Smith, Hattersley, Hyppönen, Hivert, Felix, Lowe, Frayling, Lawlor, Freathy.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Heikkinen.
Study supervision: Spector, Jacobsson, Power, Martin, Serbert, Sørensen, Järvelin, Hocher, Hayes, Lowe, Grant, Hakonarson, Bradfield, de Geus, Jaddoe, Hofman, McCarthy, Melbye, Murray, Bisgaard, Davey Smith, Hattersley, Hyppönen, Hivert, Felix, Lowe, Frayling, Lawlor, Freathy.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Feenstra reported that he is supported by an Oak Foundation fellowship. Dr Paternoster reported that she receives grant support from the UK Medical Research Council. Dr Hocher reports receiving grant support from Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Dr Frayling reports that he has received personal fees from Boeringer Ingelheim. No other financial disclosures were reported. Dr Lawlor reported that she has received grant support from Wellcome Trust, UK Medical Research Council, UK National Institute for Health Research, and the US National Institutes of Health. Dr Freathy reports that she receives grant support from Wellcome Trust and the Royal Society. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: Funding/support of authors is as follows (funding details for individual studies are reported in the Supplement). Drs Frayling and Wood are supported by grant 323195 SZ-245 50371-GLUCOSEGENES-FP7-IDEAS-ERC from the European Research Council; Drs Hattersley and McCarthy are Wellcome Trust senior investigators; Dr McCarthy is a National Institutes of Health Research senior investigator. Dr Freathy is a Sir Henry Dale Fellow (Wellcome Trust and Royal Society grant 104150/Z/14/Z); Dr Tyrrell is funded by a Diabetes Research and Wellness Foundation Fellowship; Dr Richmond is funded by the Wellcome Trust 4-year studentship (grant code, WT083431MF). Drs Lawlor, Davey Smith, Evans, and Ring all work in a unit that receives funding from the University of Bristol and the UK Medical Research Council (grants MC_UU_1201/1/5, MC_UU_1201/1 and MC_UU_1201/4). Dr Lawlor is supported by awards from the Wellcome Trust (WT094529MA and WT088806), US National Institutes of Health (R01 DK10324), and European Research Council (669545), and is a National Institutes of Health Research Senior Investigator (NF-SI-0611-10196). Drs Evans and Medland were supported by an Australian Research Council Future Fellowship (FT130101709 and FT110100548). Dr Järvelin is supported by a DynaHEALTH grant (European Union H2020-PHC-2014; 633595). Dr Feenstra is supported by an Oak Foundation Scholarship. Dr Bouchard is a junior research scholar from the Fonds de la recherché en santé du Québec (FRQS) and a member of the FRQS-funded Centre de recherché du CHUS. Dr M-F. Hivert is a Fonds de la recherché en santé du Québec research scholars and was awarded a Clinical Scientist Award by the Canadian Diabetes Association and the Maud Menten Award from the Institute of Genetics–Canadian Institute of Health Research. Dr Allard was awarded the Canadian Institute of Health Research–Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships. Dr Jaddoe is supported by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw –VIDI 016.136.361). Dr Morris is a Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellow (grant number WT098017). Dr Sørensen is holder of a European Research Council Advanced Principal Investigator award.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding agencies had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of data; preparation, review, approval of manuscript; or decision to submit manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentations: This work was presented at the Diabetes UK Annual Professional Conference 2014, 5-7 March, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Additional Contributions: We thank the participants and families who contributed to all of the studies and the teams of investigators involved in each one. These include interviewers, computer and laboratory technicians, clerical workers, research scientists, volunteers, managers, receptionists and nurses. For additional study-specific acknowledgments, please see Supplementary Material.