Study concept and design: Rough, Bateman, Patorno, Desai, Hernandez-Diaz, Huybrechts.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Rough, Bateman, Patorno, Park, Hernandez-Diaz, Huybrechts.
Drafting of the manuscript: Rough.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Rough, Bateman, Patorno, Desai, Park, Hernandez-Diaz, Huybrechts.
Statistical analysis: Rough, Desai, Park.
Obtained funding: Hernandez-Diaz.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Rough, Huybrechts.
Study supervision: Patorno, Hernandez-Diaz, Huybrechts.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Ms Rough reports receiving a 3-month student internship from Bayer. Dr Hernandez-Diaz reports receiving personal fees from AstraZeneca and University of California, Berkeley, and grant funding from Pfizer. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This article was supported by training grants from the Pharmacoepidemiology Program at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health (Ms Rough and Ms Park), grant T32 AI007433 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (Ms Rough), career development grant K01MH099141 (Dr Huybrechts) and grant R01MH100216 (Dr Hernandez-Diaz) from the National Institute of Mental Health, and career development grant K08HD075831 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (Dr Bateman).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Helen Mogun, MS (Brigham and Women’s Hospital), for preparing the analytic datasets for this study and Cora Allen-Coleman, BA (University of Wisconsin-Madison), for her assistance in creating the Figure. These contributors did not receive compensation apart from their salary.