Study concept and design: Nissen, Wadden, Buse, Bakris, Smith.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Nissen, Wolski, Prcela, Buse, Perez, Smith.
Drafting of the manuscript: Nissen, Wolski, Prcela, Bakris, Perez.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Nissen, Wadden, Buse, Bakris, Perez, Smith.
Statistical analysis: Nissen, Wolski.
Obtained funding: Nissen, Perez.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Nissen, Prcela, Bakris, Perez.
Study supervision: Nissen, Wadden, Buse, Perez, Smith.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Nissen reports grants from the Medicines Company, Amgen, Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Esperion Therapeutics, Eli Lilly, and Cerenis. He consults with many pharmaceutical companies but requires any honoraria or consulting fees be paid directly to charity so that he receives neither income nor a tax deduction. Dr Wadden reports receipt of personal fees for serving on the executive steering committee for the current study. Dr Buse reports fees for consultation to the University of North Carolina under contract and travel/meals/lodging for contracted activities from a variety of companies; grants from GlaxoSmithKline, Astellas, MacroGenics, and Intarcia Therapeutics; and membership on a variety of nonprofit boards (eg, American Diabetes Association, DiabetesSisters, Taking Control of Your Diabetes, AstraZeneca Healthcare Foundation, Bristol-Myers Squibb Together on Diabetes Foundation, the National Diabetes Education Program). Dr Bakris reports consultancy for AbbVie, Takeda, Medtronic, Relypsa, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Janssen, AstraZeneca, Bayer, and Merck. Dr Perez was previously an employee of Takeda. Dr Smith reports grants/personal fees from Takeda. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The study was sponsored by Orexigen Therapeutics Inc, La Jolla, California, and Takeda Pharmaceuticals International, Deerfield, Illinois.
Role of the Funders/Sponsor: The sponsors were involved in the design and conduct of the study and collection and management of the data. Both the Cleveland Clinic Center for Clinical Research and the sponsors had access to the full trial database for analysis. The sponsors had the right to comment on the manuscript, but final decisions on content rested with the academic authors.
Group Information: Executive steering committee: Steven S. Nissen, MD (executive steering committee chairman and study co–principal investigator), Cleveland Clinic, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, George L. Bakris, MD, University of Chicago Medicine, director, ASH Comprehensive Hypertension Center, Chicago, IL, John B. Buse, MD, PhD, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC; Thomas A. Wadden, PhD, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Center for Weight and Eating Disorders Department of Psychiatry, Philadelphia, PA, Steven R. Smith, MD, Translational Research Institute for Metabolism and Diabetes, Florida Hospital, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, Orlando, FL. Data monitoring committee: Thomas R. Fleming (data monitoring committee chair and biostatistician); Paul W. Armstrong; Darren K. McGuire; Domenica M. Rubino; Ihsan M. Salloum; Arya M. Sharma. Independent statistical center supporting the data monitoring committee: Axio Research, Seattle, WA. Academic research organization: C5Research–Cleveland Clinic Coordinating Center for Clinical Research (Cleveland, OH): A. Michael Lincoff, MD (director), Lisa Prcela, Dianna Bash, Elizabeth Fabry, Denise Mason, Mingyan Shao, Michelle Strzelecki, Kathy E. Wolski. Contract research organization: PRA Health Sciences (Blue Bell, PA): Maria C. Harrison (vice president), Dana McCarthy, Kathryn Cheatle, Chris Meussner, Erica Rohrbach, Matt Zimmerman. Clinical events committee: C5Research–Cleveland Clinic Coordinating Center for Clinical Research (Cleveland, OH): Michael Faulx, MD (clinical events committee chairperson), Venu Menon, MD (clinical events committee director), Mary Jo Heckman RN, Michael Chenier, MD, Paul Cremer, MD, Irene Katzan, MD, Jason Lappe, MD, David Newton, MD, Lee Pierson, MD, Andrew Russman, MD, Daniel Sedehi, MD, Jitendra Sharma, MD, Ken Uchino, MD. Takeda Pharmaceuticals International (Deerfield, IL): Study leadership: Penny Fleck, Stuart Kupfer, MD, Orlando Bueno, MD, Jay Liu, Kraig Keeter, Jason Gans, Diane Balma, Ming Jing, John Marcinak, MD, Cong Han, Hung Lam, Yinzhong Chen, Nina Barcha, Alison Handley. Orexigen Therapeutics Inc (La Jolla, CA): Study leadership: Toni Foster, Amy Halseth, Dan Cooper, Daun Bahr, Kevin Shan, Dawn Viveash, Kristin Taylor, Ann Ashinger, Colleen Burns. Light Investigators (Number of Enrolled Patients): Laura Akright, NECRSA, LLC, Schertz, TX (142); Kevin D. Cannon, PMG Research of Wilmington LLC, Wilmington, NC (136); Douglas R. Schumacher, Radiant Research Inc, Columbus, OH (119); Lars H. Runquist, PMG Research of Charleston, Mount Pleasant, SC (112); William P. Jennings, Radiant Research Inc, San Antonio, TX (112); Harry I. Geisberg, Radiant Research Inc, Anderson, SC (112); Margaret Rhee and Hassan Malik, Radiant Research Inc, Akron, OH (110); Larry Kotek and Tami Helmer, Radiant Research Inc, Edina, MN (109); Leslie Tharenos, Radiant Research Inc., St Louis, MO (106); Adnan A. Aslam, Northwest Houston Heart Center, Tomball, TX (104); John Rubino, PMG Research of Raleigh, Raleigh, NC (104); Muna Abuerreish and Mary Cotharp, Radiant Research, Overland Park, KS (103); Michael R. Adams, Radiant Research Inc, Murray, UT (100); Michele D. Reynolds, Radiant Research Inc, Dallas, TX (100); William T. Ellison, Radiant Research, Greer, Greer, SC (95); George L. Raad, PMG Research of Charlotte, Charlotte, NC (94); Michael Glenn Winnie, Corpus Christi Family Wellness Center, Corpus Christi, TX (94); Jonathan Paul Wilson, PMG Research of Winston Salem, Winston Salem, NC (92); Linda Murray, Radiant Research Inc, Pinellas Park, FL (91); Robert E. McNeill, PMG Research of Salisbury, LLC, Salisbury, NC (86); Martin L. Throne, Radiant Research Inc., Atlanta, GA (83); Debra L. Weinstein, ZASA Clinical Research, Boynton, FL (79); Bernard P. Grunstra, PMG Research of Bristol, Bristol, TN (79); Pink L. Folmar Jr and Gordon T. Conner, Radiant Research/Simon Williamson Clinic, Birmingham, AL (79); Phyllis D. Marx and Kent Kamradt, Radiant Research Inc, Chicago, IL (76); William J. Randall, PriMed Clinical Research, Kettering, OH (74); Stephen L. Aronoff, Research Institute of Dallas, Dallas, TX (68); Opada Alzohaili, Alzohaili Medical Consultants, Dearborn, MI (67); Randall J. Severance, Radiant Research Inc, Chandler, AZ (67); David L. Bolshoun, Clinical Research Advantage Inc/Clinic Health Services of Colorado Inc, Centennial, CO (66); Leslie Cho, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (66); Kelli K. Maw and James L. Andersen, Meridien Research, Brooksville, FL (65); Wayne L. Harper, Wake Research Associates LLC, Raleigh, NC (64); John K. Earl, PMG Research of Hickory, LLC, Hickory, NC (64); Jean Foucauld, Cardiology Partners Clinical Research Institute, Wellington, FL (63); Hubert Reyes, MediSphere Medical Research Center LLC, Evansville, IN (63); Michael J. Noss, Radiant Research, LLC, Cincinnati, OH (59); Frank H. Morris, Lutherville Personal Physicians, Lutherville, MD (58); Terry L. Poling, Heartland Research Associates LLC, Wichita, KS (57); Steven K. Sooudi, DiscoveResearch Inc, Beaumont, TX (57); Dennis J. Levinson, Chicago Clinical Research Institute Inc, Chicago, IL (56); James Blankenship and Peter B. Berger, Geisinger Clinic/Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA (53); Vicki S. Blumberg, Stamford Therapeutics Consortium, Stamford, CT (53); Elie Hage-Korbin, Kore Cardiovascular Research, Jackson, TN (53); M. Shakil Aslam, Beacon Medical Group Clinical Research, South Bend, IN (52); S. Keith Smith, Burke Primary Care, Morganton, NC (52); Carl P. Griffin, Lynn Health Science Institute, Oklahoma City, OK (52); Timothy M. Koehler, Heartland Research Associates LLC, Wichita, KS (52); Bruce T. Bowling, Regional Clinical Research Inc, Endwell, NY (52); Michael R. McGuire, Lovelace Scientific Resources Inc, Albuquerque, NM (51); Barry D. Bertolet, Cardiology Associates Research LLC, Tupelo, MS (50); Stephen M. Minton, Alexandria Clinical Research LLC, Alexandria, VA (50); Alan J. Kivitz, Altoona Center for Clinical Research, Duncansville, PA (50); Bruce G. Rankin, Avail Clinical Research, LLC, Deland, FL (50); Ranjan P. Shah, Clinical Trial Network, Houston, TX (50); Martin Van Cleeff, PMG Research of Raleigh, LLC d/b/a PMG Research of Cary, Cary, NC (49); Otis Barnum, KAMP Medical Research Inc., Natchitoches, LA (49); Anuj Bhargava, Iowa Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Center, Des Moines, Iowa (48); David J. Butuk, Solaris Clinical Research, Meridian, ID (47); Steven Smith, Translational Research Institute for Metabolism and Diabetes, Orlando, FL (47); Harry Earl Studdard, Coastal Clincal Research Inc, Mobile, AL (46); Cynthia Becher Strout, Coastal Carolina Research Center, Mount Pleasant, SC (46); Chander M. Arora, RAS Health LTD, Marion, OH (45); Lawrence W. Whitlock, Southwind Medical Specialists, Memphis, TN (45); Harvey Resnick, R/D Clinical Research Inc, Lake Jackson, TX (45); Muhammad A. Khan, North Dallas Research Associates, McKinney, TX (45); Max A. Nevarez, Clinical Research Advantage Inc/ Colorado Springs Health Partners, PC, Colorado Springs, CO (45); Paul H. Wakefield, PMG Research of Knoxville, Knoxville, TN (45); Stephen W. Halpern, Radiant Research Inc, Santa Rosa, CA (45); Ernie Riffer, Clinical Research Advantage Inc/Central Phoenix Medical Clinic, LLC, Phoenix, AZ (44); Nathan Segall, Clinical Research Atlanta, Stockbridge, GA (44); Harold E. Bays, L-MARC Research Center, Louisville, KY (43); Joseph L. Lillo, Elite Clinical Studies LLC, Phoenix, AZ (43); Albert Q. Tejada, Radiant Research Inc., Scottsdale, AZ (43); Eli M. Roth and Matthew D. Wenker, Sterling Research Group, Ltd, Cincinnati, OH (42); Steven A. Geller, Centennial Medical Group, Elkridge, MD (41); Ronald I. Harris, Geisinger Specialty Clinic, Wilkes Barre, PA (41); Jon O. Ebbert, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (41); Seth H. Baker, Indian River Medical Associates–Cardiology, Vero Beach, FL (41); Warren Shu and Gary L. Sutter, HealthCare Partners Medical Group, Pasadena, CA (40); Holly Dushkin, Alan E. Kravitz, Nancy J. Tresser and Alan C. Wine, Rapid Medical Research Inc, Cleveland, OH (40); Robert J. Buynak, Buynak Clinical Research, Valparaiso, IN (39); David R. Allen, Clinical Research Advantage Inc/Internal Medicine Physicians, Omaha, NE (39); Peter Rives and Gary Elkin, Southeast Regional Research Group, Savannah, GA (39); Rajesh J. Patel, Lycoming Internal Medicine Inc, Jersey Shore, PA (38); Paul D. Rosenblit, Diabetes/Lipid Management and Research Center, Huntington Beach, CA (38); William L. Abraham, Radiant Research Inc, Tucson, AZ (38); Robert A. Strzinek, Protenium Clinical Research, LLC, Hurst, TX (37); Timothy R. Smith, Mercy Health Research, Saint Louis, MO (37); Sanford N. Plevin, Suncoast Clinical Research Inc, New Port Richey, FL (36); Robinson Koilpillai and Richard Giusti, Clinical Research of Central Florida, Winter Haven, FL (36); Mark Heiman, Cardiology Associates of Fairfield County, PC, Stamford, CT (36); Adeniyi O. Odugbesan, Physicians Research Associates LLC, Lawrenceville, GA (36); Isaac Dor, Clinical Investigations Specialists Inc, Gurnee, IL (36); Zulfiquar Bhatti, Columbus Regional Research Institute, Columbus, GA (36); William R. Felten, MidMichigan Medical Center Midland, Midland, MI (35); Brenda C. Peart, Southwest Heart Group, Tucson, AZ (34); Rao V. C. Gudipati, Michigan Cardiovascular Institute, Saginaw, MI (33); Mark A. Stich, Westside Center for Clinical Research, Jacksonville, FL (33); Damodhar P. Suresh, Saint Elizabeth Healthcare, Crestview Hills, KY (33); Michael R. Seidner and Jack C. Rosenfeld, Green and Seidner Family Practice Associates, Lansdale, PA (33); Samer Nakhle, Palm Research Center, Las Vegas, NV (32); Barry C. Lubin, National Clinical Research-Norfolk Inc, Norfolk, VA (32); Alfred N. Poindexter III, Advances In Health Inc, Houston, TX (32); Donald P. Hurley, Medical Research South LLC, Charleston, SC (32); E. Clark Cullen, Sunstone Medical Research LLC, Medford, OR (32); Mark A. Turner, Advanced Clinical Research, Meridian, ID (32); Gerald R. Shockey, Clinical Research Advantage Inc./Desert Clinical Reseach, LLC, Mesa, AZ (32); Roddy P. Canosa Frank W. Corbally, Northern Lancaster County Medical Group affiliate of Wellspan Health Medical Group, Ephrata, PA (32); Lisa M. Cohen, Suncoast Clinical Research Inc, New Port Richey, FL (32); Sabrina A. Benjamin, Universal Research Group, Tacoma, WA (32); David Fitz-Patrick, East-West Medical Research Institute, Honolulu, HI (32); Kenneth M. Maynard, Investigator’s Research Group, LLC, Brownsburg, IN (31); Robert J. Weiss, Maine Research Associates, Auburn, ME (31); Dale C. Allison, Hillcrest Family Health Center, Waco, TX (31); Douglas Young, Northern California Research, Sacramento, CA (31); Ralph David Wade, Wade Family Medicine Inc, Bountiful, UT (30); Raymond E. Jackson, QUEST Research Institute, Bingham Farms, MI (30); Miguel E. Trevino, Innovative Research of West Florida Inc, Clearwater, FL (29); Murray A. Kimmel, Accelovance, Melbourne, FL (29); Matthew D. Acampora, The Center For Nutrition and Preventive Medicine, Charlotte, NC (29); Gigi C. Lefebvre, Meridien Research, St Petersburg, FL (29); Louis M. Stephens Jr, Palmetto Clinical Trials Services LLC, Fountain Inn, SC (28); Jennifer S. Kay, Clinical Research Advantage Inc/ Ridge Family Practice, Council Bluffs, IA (28); Kenneth Cohen, New West Physicians, PC, Golden, CO (27); Jay C. Anderson, Internal Medical Associates of Grand Island PC, Grand Island, NE (27); Robert Lipetz, Encompass Clinical Research, Spring Valley, CA (27); Bindu Lal and Armen H. Arslanian, Beacon Clinical Research, LLC, Brockton, MA (27); Bhola Rama, Rama Research, LLC, Marion, OH (27); Ravi S. Bhagwat, Cardiovascular Research of Northwest Indiana LLC, Munster, IN (27); Jack D. Wahlen, Advanced Research Institute, Ogden, UT (26); Jeffrey G. Shanes, Consultants in Cardiovascular Medicine, Melrose Park, IL (26); Michelle Welch, Cosano Clinical Research, San Antonio, TX (26); Ronald Blonder, UCH-MHS, Colorado Springs, CO (26); Michael Jacobs, Clinical Research Consortium, Las Vegas, NV (25); Irving K. Loh, Westlake Medical Research, Thousand Oaks, CA (25); William Saway, Columbia Medical Practice, Columbia, MD (25); David Radin, Stamford Therapeutics Consortium, Stamford, CT (25); Anthony Alfieri, Alfieri Cardiology, Newark, DE (25); Judith L. Kirstein, Advanced Clinical Research, West Jordan, UT (25); William Gonte, American Center for Clinical Trials, Southfield, MI (24); Jeffrey Rothman, University Physicians Group Research Division, Staten Island, NY (24); O. Michael Obiekwe, Atlanta Ropheka Medical Center/APSMO, Riverdale, GA (24); Donna M. DeSantis, Clinical Research Advantage Inc/ East Valley Family Physicians, PLC, Chandler, AZ (23); Robert Lamar Parker, Lyndhurst Clinical Research, Omaha, NE (23); Eric M. Ball, Walla Walla Clinic, Walla Walla, WA (23); Caroline M. Apovian, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (23); Rene Casanova, SouthEast Medical Centre, Oakland Park, FL (23); Cezar Staniloae, Gotham Cardiovascular Research, PC, New York, NY (23); John J. Champlin, Med Center, Carmichael, CA (23); Kari T. Uusinarkaus, Clinical Research Advantage Inc/Colorado Springs Health Partners, PC, Colorado Springs, CO (22); Daniel Weiss, Your Diabetes Endocrine Nutrition Group Inc, Mentor, OH (22); Anthony J. Bartkowiak Jr, Blair Medical Associates, Inc, Altoona, PA (22); Paul C. Norwood, Valley Research, Fresno, CA (22); David M. Barker, Chattanooga Medical Research LLC, Chattanooga, TN (22); John Buse, UNC Diabetes Care Center, Chapel Hill, NC (22); Daniel F. Sousa, Genesis Clinical Research and Consulting LLC, Fall River, MA (22); Andrea L. Phillips, Phillips Medical Services PLLC, Jackson, MS (22); Dean J. Kereiakes, The Carl and Edyth Lindner Center for Research and Education at The Christ Hospital, Cincinnati, OH (22); John Agaiby, Clinical Investigation Specialists Inc, Kenosha, WI (22); Scott Sulman, Geisinger Clinic/Geisinger Medical Group-Scenery Park, State College, PA (22); Mark L. Warren, Physician’s East PA Endocrinology, Greenville, NC (21); John Hoekstra and John K. Scott, National Clinical Research-Richmond Inc, Richmond, VA (21); Oliver T. Willard and William E. Fowler, Advanced Research Associates–Self Medical Group, Hodges, SC (20); Thomas A. McKnight, Clinical Research Advantage Inc/Prairie Fields Family Medicine, PC, Fremont, NE (20); Patrick O’Neil, MUSC Weight Management Center, Charleston, SC (20); Harry Collins, Anderson and Collins Clinical Research Inc, Edison, NJ (20); Randall T. Huling Jr, Olive Branch Family Medical Center, Olive Branch, MS (19); Judith L. White, Holston Medical Group, Kingsport, TN (19); Keith D. Klatt, Columbia Research Group Inc, Portland, OR (19); Mandeep S. Oberoi, Central Jersey Medical Research Center, Elizabeth, NJ (19); Samuel O. Teniola, Samuel O. Teniola Private Practice/APSMO, Atlanta, GA (19); Robert G. Ashley Jr, Florida Research Network, Gainesville, FL (19); Kurt Lesh and William Tyler Stone, Lynn Institute of the Rockies, Colorado Springs, CO (19); Harold K. Cathcart, Northside Internal Medicine, Spokane, WA (18); Michael Castro, HOPE Research Institute, Peoria, AZ (18); Steven Hearne, Delmarva Heart and Research Foundation Inc, Salisbury, MD (18); Alan H. Wiseman, Eastern Maine Medical Center/Northeast Cardiology, Bangor, MA (18); Krishna Kumar Pudi, Upstate Pharmaceutical Research, Greenville, SC (18); Frank A. McGrew III, Stern Cardiovascular Foundation Inc, Germantown, TN (17); William R. Palmer, Westroads Clinical Research Inc, Winston-Salem, NC (17); Clifford J. Molin, Clinical Research Advantage Inc, Las Vegas, NV (17); Barry K. McLean, Central Alabama Research, Birmingham, AL (16); Robin Kroll, Seattle Women’s Health Research Gynecology, Seattle, WA (16); Peter J. Winkle, Anaheim Clinical Trials LLC, Anaheim, CA (16); Jasjit S. Walia, NJ Heart, Linden, NJ (16); Uma Rangaraj, Arthritis and Diabetes Clinic Inc, Monroe, LA (16); Stuart J. Simon, Georgia Clinical Research, Austell, GA (16); Philip S. Behn, Premier Healthcare LLC, Bloomington, IN (16); Kenneth A. Morris, Bensalem Medical Practice, Bensalem, PA (15); Peter Rees, ActivMed Practices and Research Inc, Methuen, MA (15); Steven Zeig, Pines Clinical Research Inc, Pembroke Pines, FL (15); Philip A. Levin and James H. Mersey, MODEL Clinical Research, Baltimore, MD (15); Eric Lo, Edgewater Medical Research Inc, New Smyma Beach, FL (15); Timothy D. Wingo and Eugene F. Schwarz, Ellipsis Research Group LLC, Columbia, SC (15); Gary E. Ruoff, Westside Family Medical Center PC, Kalamazoo, MI (15); Robert A. Cohen, Cohen Medical Associates, PA, Delray Beach, FL (14); Clancy Cone, Montana Medical Research Inc, Missoula, MT (14); Kenneth Hershon, North Shore Diabetes and Endocrine Associates, New Hyde Park, NY (14); Kenneth Blaze, South Broward Research, LLC, Pembroke Pines, FL (14); William Graettinger, Reno Clinical Trials, Sparks, NV (14); William D. Doty, Cardiology Consultants, Pensacola, FL (14); Philip O’Donnell, Selma Medical Associates, Winchester, VA (14); Marina Raikhel, Torrance Clinical Research Institute Inc, Lomita, CA (14); Walter S. Patton, Quality of Life Medical & Research Center LLC, Tucson, AZ (13); Mohammad Riaz, Bayview Research Group LLC, Paramount, CA (12); Michael W. Warren, Research Across America, Reading, PA (12); Troy A. Thompson, Southwestern Medical Clinic Lakeland HealthCare Affiliate, Stevensville, MI (12); Ronald K. Mayfield, Mountain View Clinical Research Inc, Greer, SC (12); Bruce A. Barker, Delaware Research Group LLC, Delaware, OH (16); William Randolph Wainwright, Baptist Heart Specialists, Jacksonville, FL (11); Rita B. Chuang and Aaron Adaoag, Clinical Research Advantage Inc/Rita B. Chuang, MD, Henderson, NV (11); Michael G. Del Core, CHI Health Alegent Creighton Clinic Cardiology, Omaha, NE (11); Veita J. Bland, Bland Clinic PA, Greensboro, NC (10); John B. Buse, UNC Diabetes Research at Eagle Physicians, Greensboro, NC (10); Matthew J. Budoff, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA (10); Ken Fujioka, Scripps Clinical Research Services, La Jolla, CA (10); David B. Jack, Lone Peak Family Medicine, Draper, UT (10); Thomas L. Davis III, Integrated Research Group Inc, Riverside, CA (10); Michael J. Guice, American Institute of Research, Los Angeles, CA (10); Mark E. Kutner, Suncoast Research Group LLC, Miami, FL (10); Brian D. Snoddy, Birmingham Heart Clinic PC, Birmingham, AL (10); John Pullman, Mercury Street Medical Group, PLLC, Butte, MT (9); Imran Dotani and Steven R. Wanzek, McFarland Clinic, Ames, IA (9); Mukarram A. Baig, Heart Care Center of NW Houston, Houston, TX (9); Jung Oh and Richard B. Stewart, Perimeter Institute for Clinical Research Inc DBA: PICR Clinic, Atlanta, GA (9); Sunil Bhoyrul, XiMED Center for Weight Management, La Jolla, CA (8); Glenn R. Davis and Larry S. Watkins, Drs. Glenn Davis and Dennis Dean Kumpuris, PA, Little Rock, AR (8); Lindsey White, Eastern Carolina Cardiovascular, Elizabeth City, NC (8); Timothy Bailey, AMCR Institute Inc, Escondido, CA (8); Frank Greenway, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA (8); Thomas M. Wade, South Florida Research Advantage LLC, Pembroke Pines, FL (8); Neville Bittar, Gemini Scientific LLC, Madison, WI (8); Reza Banifatemi and John C. Corbelli, Buffalo Cardiology and Pulmonary Associates, Williamsville, NY (7); Paul R. Hermany, Grand View–Lehigh Valley Health Services, Buxmont Cardiology Division, Sellersville, PA (7); Danny Sugimoto, Cedar-Crosse Research Center, Chicago, IL (7); Samuel Klein, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (7); Samuel Joseph Tarwater, Digestive Health Specialists of the Southeast DBA Tarheel Clinical Research, LLC, Dothan, AL (7); John J. Hunter, Santa Rosa Cardiology Medical Group, Santa Rosa, CA (7); Philip Pearlstein, Pearl Clinical Research Inc, Norristown, PA (7); Paramjit Parmar and Russel W. Simpson, Lynn Institute of Denver, Denver, CO (7); Jaime David Sandoval, Padre Coast Medical Research, Corpus Christi, TX (7); Larkin Wadsworth III, Sundance Clinical Research LLC, St. Louis, MO (7); Tiffany M. Pluto, Fay West Family Practice, Scottdale, PA (7); Stephen H. Fehnel, Reading Health Physician Network–Women’s Clinic and IVF–Fertility, West Reading, PA (6); Robert J. Helm, Investigative Clinical Research of Indiana LLC, Elwood, IN (6); Nampalli K. Vijay, Aurora Denver Cardiology Associates, PC, Denver, CO (6); Richard L. Beasley, Health Concepts, Rapid City, SD (5); Priscilla L. Hollander, Baylor Endocrine Center, Dallas, TX (5); Naseem A. Jaffrani, Alexandria Cardiology Clinic, Alexandria, LA (5); John V. Bernard, Wellness and Research Center, Belvidere, NJ (5); Senthil N. Sundaram, PMG Research of Raleigh, Raleigh, NC (4); Jeffrey P. Barasch, Better Breathing, Ridgewood, NJ (4); Dan A. Streja, Infosphere Clinical Research Inc, West Hills, CA (4); Eric D. Blakney, Premier Internal Medicine, Memphis, TN (4); Archie Hearne, Preferred Research Partners Inc, Little Rock, AR (3); Bruce Rashbaum, Capital Medical Associates, PC, Washington, DC (3); John P. Foreyt, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (3); Hani Kozman, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY (2); Paul McLaughlin, Paul McLaughlin, MD, Private Practice, Mount Sterling, KY (2); Patricia Bearnson, Office of Patricia Bearnson, MD, Salt Lake City, UT (1); Sherry Megalla and Narendra Bhalodkar, Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center, Bronx, NY (1); Pratibha Vemulapalli, Medical Arts Pavilion, Bronx, NY (1).
Additional Contributions: Kye Gilder, PhD, and Preston Klassen, MD, Orexigen Therapeutics, were instrumental in designing and conducting the trial, participated in reviewing the manuscript, and made important contributions to the content. They did not receive financial compensation outside of their ususal salaries.