Study concept and design: Chou.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Chou, Dana, Bougatsos, Grusing, Blazina.
Drafting of the manuscript: Chou, Dana, Bougatsos, Grusing.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Chou, Blazina.
Statistical analysis: Chou, Dana.
Obtained funding: Chou.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Dana, Bougatsos, Grusing, Blazina.
Study supervision: Chou, Bougatsos.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This research was funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under a contract to support the USPSTF.
Role of the Sponsor: Investigators worked with USPSTF members and AHRQ staff to develop the scope, analytic framework, and key questions for this review. AHRQ had no role in study selection, quality assessment, or synthesis. AHRQ staff provided project oversight; reviewed the report to ensure that the analysis met methodological standards, and distributed the draft for peer review. Otherwise, AHRQ had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Information: A draft version of this evidence report underwent external peer review from 5 content experts (Neil M. Bressler, MD, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; Zahra Jessa, PhD, BSc, MCOptom, Moorfields Eye Hospital, Royal National Institute of Blind People, London; Gianni Virgili, MD, Careggi Hospital Eye Clinic, University of Florence, Italy; Liam Smeeth, MBChB, FRCGP, FFPH, FRCP, MSc, PhD, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; Nancy Weintraub, MD, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles) and 3 federal partners: Food and Drug Administration/Center for Drug Evaluation and Research; National Institute on Aging/National Institutes of Health; and the Veterans Health Administration. Comments were presented to the USPSTF during its deliberation of the evidence and were considered in preparing the final evidence review.
Editorial Disclaimer: This evidence report is presented as a document in support of the accompanying USPSTF Recommendation Statement. It did not undergo additional peer review after submission to JAMA.