Study concept and design: Staiger, Marshall, Auerbach, Buerhaus.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Staiger, Marshall, Goodman, Auerbach.
Drafting of the manuscript: Staiger, Auerbach, Buerhaus.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Marshall, Goodman, Auerbach,
Statistical analysis: Staiger, Marshall.
Obtained funding: Buerhaus.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Staiger, Auerbach, Buerhaus.
Study supervision: Staiger.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Staiger reports personal fees from and holding stock in ArborMetrix. Dr Auerbach reports consulting for Johnson & Johnson. Dr Buerhaus reports receiving personal fees from various universities and institutions for lectures. Dr Marshall reports receiving travel accommodations from the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation provided grant support.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funder played no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.