Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Singer, Deutschman, Seymour, Shankar-Hari, Angus.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Shankar-Hari, Seymour.
Obtained funding: Deutschman, Chiche, Coopersmith.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Singer, Deutschman, Chiche, Coopersmith, Levy, Angus.
Study supervision: Singer, Deutschman.
Drs Singer and Deutschman are joint first authors.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Singer reports serving on the advisory boards of InflaRx, Bayer, Biotest, and Merck and that his institution has received grants from the European Commission, UK National Institute of Health Research, Immunexpress, DSTL, and Wellcome Trust. Dr Deutschman reports holding patents on materials not related to this work and receiving travel/accommodations and related expenses for participation in meetings paid by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care, Pennsylvania Assembly of Critical Care Medicine/PA Chapter, Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM)/Penn State–Hershey Medical Center, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Northern Ireland Society of Critical Care Medicine, International Sepsis Forum, Department of Anesthesiology, Stanford University, Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative, and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM). Dr Seymour reports receiving personal fees from Beckman Coulter and a National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant awarded to his institution. Dr Bauer reports support for travel to meetings for the study from ESICM, payment for speaking from CSL Behring, grants to his institution from Jena University Hospital, and patents held by Jena University Hospital. Dr Bernard reports grants from AstraZeneca for activities outside the submitted work. Dr Chiche reports consulting for Nestlé and Abbott and honoraria for speaking from GE Healthcare and Nestlé. Dr Coopersmith reports receiving grants from the NIH for work not related to this article. Dr Coopersmith also reports bring president-elect and president of SCCM when the task force was meeting and the article was being drafted. A stipend was paid to Emory University for his time spent in these roles. Dr Hotchkiss reports consulting on sepsis for GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, and Bristol-Meyers Squibb and reports that his institution received grant support from Bristol-Meyers Squibb and GlaxoSmithKline, as well as the NIH, for research on sepsis. Dr Marshall reports serving on the data and safety monitoring board (DSMB) of AKPA Pharma and Spectral Medical Steering Committee and receiving payment for speaking from Toray Ltd and Uni-Labs. Dr Martin reports serving on the board for SCCM and Project Help, serving on the DSMB for Cumberland Pharmaceuticals and Vanderbilt University, serving on the medical advisory board for Grifols and Pulsion Medical Systems, and grants to his institution from NIH, the Food and Drug Administration, Abbott, and Baxter. Dr Opal reports grants from GlaxoSmithKline, Atoxbio, Asahi-Kasei, Ferring, Cardeas, and Arsanis outside the submitted work; personal fees from Arsanis, Aridis, Bioaegis, Cyon, and Battelle; and serving on the DSMB for Achaogen, Spectral Diagnostics, and Paratek. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported in part by a grant from the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: These funding bodies appointed cochairs but otherwise had no role in the design and conduct of the work; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication. As other national and international societies, they were asked for comment and endorsement.
Disclaimer: Dr Angus, JAMA Associate Editor, had no role in the evaluation of or decision to publish this article.
Endorsing Societies: Academy of Medical Royal Colleges (UK); American Association of Critical Care Nurses; American Thoracic Society (endorsed August 25, 2015); Australian–New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS); Asia Pacific Association of Critical Care Medicine; Brasilian Society of Critical Care; Central American and Caribbean Intensive Therapy Consortium; Chinese Society of Critical Care Medicine; Chinese Society of Critical Care Medicine–China Medical Association; Critical Care Society of South Africa; Emirates Intensive Care Society; European Respiratory Society; European Resuscitation Council; European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and its Study Group of Bloodstream Infections and Sepsis; European Society of Emergency Medicine; European Society of Intensive Care Medicine; European Society of Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care; German Sepsis Society; Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine; International Pan Arabian Critical Care Medicine Society; Japanese Association for Acute Medicine; Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine; Pan American/Pan Iberian Congress of Intensive Care; Red Intensiva (Sociedad Chilena de Medicina Crítica y Urgencias); Sociedad Peruana de Medicina Critica; Shock Society; Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva; Society of Critical Care Medicine; Surgical Infection Society; World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies; World Federation of Critical Care Nurses; World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine.
Additional Contributions: The task force would like to thank Frank Brunkhorst, MD, University Hospital Jena, Germany; Theodore J. Iwashyna, MD, PhD, University of Michigan; Vincent Liu, MD, MSc, Kaiser Permanente Northern California; Thomas Rea, MD, MPH, University of Washington; and Gary Phillips, MAS, Ohio State University; for their invaluable assistance, and the administrations and leadership of SCCM and ESICM for facilitating its work. Payment was provided to the Center for Biostatistics, Ohio State University, to support the work of Mr Phillips.