Author Contributions: Dr Pham and Dr Bellani had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Bellani, Laffey, Pham, Fan, Brochard, Esteban, Gattinoni, Ranieri, Rubenfeld, Thompson, Wrigge, Slutsky, Pesenti.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Bellani, Laffey, Pham, Fan, Brochard, Esteban, van Haren, Larsson, McAuley, Ranieri, Wrigge, Slutsky.
Drafting of the manuscript: Bellani, Laffey, Pham, Fan, Ranieri, Thompson.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Bellani, Laffey, Pham, Fan, Brochard, Esteban, Gattinoni, van Haren, Larsson, McAuley, Ranieri, Rubenfeld, Wrigge, Slutsky, Pesenti.
Statistical analysis: Bellani, Laffey, Pham, Fan, Ranieri.
Obtained funding: Laffey, Larsson, Ranieri.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Bellani, Laffey, Fan, Esteban, McAuley, Ranieri, Thompson, Slutsky.
Study supervision: Bellani, Laffey, Brochard, Esteban, Gattinoni, van Haren, Larsson, Ranieri, Slutsky, Pesenti.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Group Information: LUNG SAFE Investigators and the ESICM Trials Group are listed in the Supplement.
Funding/Support: This work was funded and supported by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM), Brussels, Belgium, by St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Canada, and by the University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza, Italy.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The ESICM provided support in data collection and study coordination. ESICM, St Michael’s Hospital and University of Milan-Bicocca had no role in the design and conduct of the study; management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Guy Francois of the ESICM for administrative support and Fabiana Madotto, PhD, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan-Bicocca, Manza, Italy, for statistical expertise and advice, neither of whom were compensated for their contributions.