Study concept and design: Alhamdi, Wang, Toh.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Alhamdi, Abrams, Lane, Wang, Toh.
Drafting of the manuscript: Alhamdi, Toh.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Alhamdi, Abrams, Lane, Wang, Toh.
Statistical analysis: Alhamdi, Abrams, Lane.
Obtained funding: Wang, Toh.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Wang.
Study supervision: Wang, Toh.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was funded by the National Institute of Health Research, British Heart Foundation, and the Royal Liverpool & Broadgreen University Hospitals NHS Trust.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.