Published Online: February 23, 2016. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.0548.
Study concept and design: Billings, Brown.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Billings, Schildcrout, Shi.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Schildcrout, Shi.
Obtained funding: Billings, Brown.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hendricks, Petracek, Byrne, Brown.
Study supervision: Billings, Brown.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Brown reported receiving grants from Shire Pharmaceuticals and New Haven Pharmaceuticals; and personal fees from Novartis Pharmaceuticals and Alnylam Pharmaceuticals. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grants K23GM102676, K12ES015855, R01GM112871, and UL1RR024975 from the National Institutes of Health and by the Vanderbilt University Medical Center Department of Anesthesiology.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The National Institutes of Health and the Vanderbilt University Medical Center Department of Anesthesiology had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank the members of the data and safety monitoring board: Mias Pretorius, MD, MSc (chair), Julia B. Lewis, MD, Stephen K. Ball, MD, and Leena Choi, PhD. We also thank Anthony DeMatteo, BS, for technical assistance, Jennifer Morse, MS, and Misty Hale for data management assistance, and Will Hardeman, BA, Cleo Carter, BA, Kiersten Card, Jennifer Morse, MS, and Damon Michaels, BS (all with the Vanderbilt Department of Anesthesiology’s Perioperative Clinical Research Institute) for assisting in data collection. The persons listed were not compensated for their contributions.