Autism spectrum disorder is a disorder of brain development in children. It affects a child’s behavior and his or her ability to interact with others. Children with ASD have trouble communicating with and relating to others and may have different interests than children without ASD. Some signs and symptoms of ASD include avoiding eye contact, not playing with other children, repetitive behaviors, language difficulties, and showing an intense focus on certain objects while having no interest in other things. Autism spectrum disorder can range from mild to severe. Symptoms of ASD are usually first seen in the second year of life but can start earlier or later. The February 16, 2016, issue of JAMA contains the new USPSTF recommendations on screening for ASD.