Study concept and design: Winstein, Wolf, Dromerick, Nelsen, Lewthwaite.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Winstein, Wolf, Dromerick, Lane, Nelsen, Lewthwaite, Cen.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Winstein, Wolf, Dromerick, Lane, Nelsen, Lewthwaite, Azen.
Statistical analysis: Lane, Cen, Azen.
Obtained funding: Winstein, Wolf, Dromerick, Azen.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Winstein, Wolf, Dromerick, Lane, Nelsen, Lewthwaite, Cen.
Study supervision: Winstein, Wolf, Dromerick, Nelsen.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: The ICARE trial was funded jointly by the National Institutes of Health, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (primary), and the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (grant U01NS056256). Each author received support from this grant during the conduct of the study.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders provided input and oversight related to the design and conduct of the study, as well as collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data. Preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript and decision to submit the manuscript for publication were solely the responsibility of the authors.
Disclaimer: This article does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
Members of the ICARE Investigative Team: University of Southern California, Administrative Coordinating Center, Los Angeles, California: Carolee J. Winstein, principal investigator; Monica A. Nelsen, program director, SIS standardization assessor; Jennifer Bandich, financial manager; Shannon Massimo, project assistant; Michelle Haines, project assistant; Patricia Hatchett, project manager, ASAP therapist (pilot and proposal phases); Veronica T. Rowe, WMFT standardization assessor, WMFT FAS rater; Claire McLean, blinded evaluator; Arlene Yang, blinded evaluator, WMFT FAS rater; Rachel Tabak, blinded evaluator; Kristin McNealus, Blinded Evaluator; Veronica Strickland, Blinded Evaluator; Julie Y. Kasayama, WMFT FAS Rater; Rebecca Lewthwaite, Co-Investigator, ASAP standardization assessor; Burl Wagenheim, coinvestigator, study psychologist; Brent Liu, neuroanatomical and imaging database director; Ximing Wang, neuroanatomical and imaging data manager; Kevin Ma, neuroanatomical and imaging data manager; David Russak, WMFT quality assurance; Nhi Dang, WMFT quality assurance; Katie Wongthipkongka, WMFT quality assurance; Yanshu Hou, WMFT quality assurance; Sue Duff, T32 fellow; Richard Nelson, webmaster (public site). Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia: Steven L. Wolf, co–principal investigator; Sarah Blanton, site team leader, ASAP therapist; David Burke, Physician investigator; Susan Murphy, research assistant; Aimee Reiss, blinded evaluator; Marsha Bidgood, blinded evaluator; Lois Wolf, ASAP therapist; Gina Holecek, usual care therapist; Megan Hite, usual care therapist; Melissa Tober, usual care therapist; Sara Zeforino, usual care therapist. National Rehabilitation Hospital and Georgetown University, Washington, DC: Alexander W. Dromerick, co–principal investigator, physician investigator; Matthew A. Edwardson, neuroanatomical and imaging analyst (NINDS-StrokeNet fellow); Kathaleen Brady, site team leader (August 2012-2015), ASAP therapist; Rahsaan Holley, site team leader (August 2009–August 2012), ASAP therapist; Lori Monroe, site team leader (August 2008–August 2009); Matthew Elrod, ASAP therapist (pilot and proposal phases); Kate Burdekin, research assistant; Siena Quitania, research assistant; Sara Loftin, research assistant; Margot Gianetti, research assistant; Rebecca Feldman, research assistant; Deirdra Tiffany, research assistant; Annie Simons, research assistant; Lauro Halstead, physician investigator; Kanan Desai, blinded evaluator; Hansen Chan, blinded evaluator; Jessica Barth, blinded evaluator; Sambit Mohapatra, blinded evaluator; Carrie Pappe, blinded evaluator; Nora E. Barrett, blinded evaluator; Ericka Breceda Tinoco, blinded evaluator; Diane Nichols, ASAP therapist; Alison Lichy, ASAP therapist; Melissa Cross, ASAP therapist; Mara Levy, usual care therapist; Connie Guercin, usual care therapist; Teresa Tracy, usual care therapist; Jutta Brettschneider, usual care therapist; Molly Fieldsend, usual care therapist; Janice Underwood, usual care therapist. University of Southern California Data Management and Analysis Center, Los Angeles: Christianne J. Lane, DMAC director (years 2-7); Stanley P. Azen, blinded statistician; Steven Yong Cen, database director; James Gardner, database programmer; Li Ding, statistician; Christopher Hahn, statistician; Jiaxiu He, statistician; Caron Park, statistician; Ge Wen, statistician; Miwa Takayanagi, statistician; Anny Xiang, DMAC director (year 1). Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, Long Beach, California: Candice Burtman-Regalado, site team leader, ASAP therapist; Charro Scott, site team leader, ASAP therapist; Richard Adams, physician investigator; Diehma Hoang, physician investigator; Audrey Huang, physician investigator; Shannon Massimo, research assistant; Shuywe Jenq, usual care therapist. Casa Colina Hospital and Centers for Rehabiliation, Pomona, California: Stephanie Kaplan, site team leader, ASAP therapist, ASAP standardization assessor; David Patterson, physician investigator; Cathelyn Timple, ASAP therapist; Shelia Mendon, usual care therapist; Jacob Hazen, usual care therapist; Deborah Ouellette, usual care therapist. Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center, Downey, California: Oscar Gallardo, site team leader, ASAP therapist (Spanish bilingual); Covey Lazouras, site team leader, ASAP therapist; Xiao-Ling Zhang, physician investigator; Babak Bina, physician investigator; Joaquín Torres, research assistant; Rosemary Tamayo, research assistant; Byanca Rodriguez, research assistant; Chester Lin, research assistant; Alex Villegas, blinded evaluator (Spanish bilingual); Claire Smith, ASAP therapist; Mark Wolfson, usual care therapist; Kelly Love, usual care therapist. Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California: Richard Riggs, physician investigator; Michelle Demond, site team leader; Pamela Roberts, site team leader; Nuvia Solis, research assistant; Sara Benham, ASAP therapist; Karina Fakheri, ASAP therapist; Aimee Davis, ASAP therapist; B. A. MacCormack, usual care therapist. Huntington Rehabilitation Medical Associates, Pasadena, California: Sunil Hegde, physician investigator; Cynthia Kushi, site team leader, ASAP therapist; Ilin Ohanessians, clinical site coordinator, site team leader; Michael Parkinson, ASAP therapist; Miriam Burch, usual care therapist. Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois: Richard L. Harvey, medical safety monitor. The following individuals provided oversight during the conduct and analysis of the study: Data Safety and Monitoring Board: Bruce Coull (chair), University of Arizona, Tucson; Stephen Nadeau, University of Florida, Gainesville; Michael Parides, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY; Sue Ann Sisto, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland: Scott Janis, scientific program officer (NINDS); Janice Cordell, program official (NINDS); Louise Ritz, DSMB liaison (NINDS); Mary Ellen Michel, program official (NCMRR). Ancillary Study (ICAREGEN; NIH grant R01 NS058755): Steven C. Cramer, principal investigator; Jill See, project coordinator, University of California, Irvine.