Study concept and design: Baker, Piper, Stein, Fraser, Fiore.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Baker, Piper, Smith, Bolt, Fiore.
Drafting of the manuscript: Baker, Smith, Fiore.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Baker, Piper, Stein, Bolt, Fraser, Fiore.
Statistical analysis: Baker, Smith, Bolt.
Obtained funding: Baker, Piper, Stein, Fraser, Fiore.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Baker, Fraser, Fiore.
Study supervision: Baker, Piper, Fraser, Fiore.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Stein reports receipt of data and safety monitoring board honoraria from Lilly and Abbott. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This research was supported by grant 5R01HL109031 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and grant K05CA139871 from the National Cancer Institute to the University of Wisconsin Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding bodies had no part in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Wendy Theobald, PhD, Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, for providing vital assistance in editing and literature review. She did not receive compensation beyond her regular salary. We are very grateful to the staff and students at the Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health for their help with this research.