†Dr Weeks is deceased.
Study concept and design: Wright, Keating, Ayanian, Weeks, Earle, Landrum.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Wright, Keating, Weeks, Landrum.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Wright, Keating, Ayanian, Chrischilles, Kahn, Ritchie, Earle, Landrum.
Statistical analysis: Wright, Keating, Landrum.
Obtained funding: Ayanian, Kahn, Weeks, Earle.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Wright, Keating, Ayanian, Weeks, Earle, Landrum.
Study supervision: Weeks.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Richie reported receiving institutional support for serving as the current president for the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine; receiving grant funding from the National Institute of Nursing Research, National Institute on Aging, Retirement Research Retirement Foundation, California Healthcare Foundation, Commonwealth Fund, and the West Health Institute; receiving payment for lectures from the Medical Grand Rounds at the University of Wisconsin; and receiving royalties for serving as an editor for UpToDate. Dr Landrum reported receiving grant funding from Pfizer; and personal fees from McKinsey and Company and Greylock McKinnon Associates. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grant R01 CA91753 from the National Cancer Institute (awarded to Dr Earle) and grants U01 CA093344 (awarded to Dana-Farber Cancer Institute), U01 CA093324 (awarded to Harvard Medical School and Northern California Cancer Center), U01 CA093332 (awarded to Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Cancer Research Network), U01 CA093348 (awarded to RAND Corporation and University of California, Los Angeles), U01 CA093329 (awarded to University of Alabama, Birmingham), U01 CA093339 (awarded to University of Iowa), U01 CA093326 (awarded to the University of North Carolina), and R01 CA1604021 (awarded to Dr Keating) from the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) Consortium. CanCORS II work was funded by grant 5U01CA093344-08 from the National Cancer Institute (awarded to the CanCORS Consortium Statistical Coordinating Center). Dr Wright is supported by grant K07 166210 and Dr Keating is supported by K24 CA181510 from the National Cancer Institute.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The National Cancer Institute had a role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; but not in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Lin Ding, PhD (Harvard Medical School), for conducting statistical analyses; her work on this project was supported by research grants to Harvard Medical School from the National Cancer Institute.